Sunday, January 27, 2019

Accounts Receivable and Correct Marks

Which of the following events involves an accrual? acquire wholeness answer. a. arrangement interest that has been pull in but not received b. save supplies that entertain been purchased with cash but not yet used. c. Recording receipts that has been earned but not yet hoard in cash. d. A. and C. mend label for this patience 5/5. oppugn 2 mark 5 Which resource provider typically receives first priority when resources are split as part of a businesss liquidation? deal one answer. a. stockholders b. owners c. the companys managers d. creditors comprise attach for this long-suffering 5/5. doubtfulness 3 tag 5 Which of the following transactions involves a deferral? use up one answer. a. Recording salaries of employees earned but not yet paid. b. Recording the interest earned (but not received) on a CD. c. Recording interest accrued on a note payable. d. Recording the prepayment of three months rent. even label for this submission 5/5. motion 4 attach 5 Which of the following groups has the primordial responsibility for establishing generally accepted accounting principles for business entities in the united States? rent one answer. a. Internal Revenue Service b. U. S. Congress c. governmental Accounting Standards Board d. Financial Accounting Standards Board settle Marks for this submission 5/5. movement 5 Marks 5 The left wing side of a T-account is know as the Choose one answer. a. debit entry Side b. reference side c. Claims side d. Equity side square up Marks for this submission 5/5. 1 Marks 5 increase represents are matched against sales revenue Choose one answer. a. in the dot immediately following the sale. b. when the merchandise is purchased. c. when the sale is made. d. in the period immediately following the purchase. Correct Marks for this submission 5/5. Question 2 Marks 5 The left side of a T-account is known as the Choose one answer. a. Claims s ide b. Equity side c. Credit side d. Debit Side Correct Marks for this submission 5/5. Question 3 Marks 5 When prices are rising, which system acting of livestock, if any, lead result in the lowest relative net cash leakage (including the effects of taxes, if any)? Choose one answer. a. weighted average. b. FIFO c. LIFO d.None of these inventory methods cannot affect cash flows. Incorrect Marks for this submission 0/5. Question 4 Marks 5 Which of the following is considered a period approach? Choose one answer. a. Transportation cost on goods received from suppliers. b. represent of merchandise purchased. c. Packaging costs for merchandise to be sold. d. Advertising put down for the current month. Correct Marks for this submission 5/5. Question 5 Marks 5 Which of the following is considered a product cost? Choose one answer. a. Salaries paid to employees of a retailer. b.Utility expense for the current month. c. Transportation cost on goods received from suppliers. d. Transportation cost on goods shipped to customers. Correct Marks for this submission 5/5. 1 Marks 5 Receivables are unremarkably reported on the balance sheet at net achievable value. In contrast, payables are carried at face value. Which accounting principle requires this intervention of payables? Choose one answer. a. Matching concept. b. Monetary unit assumption. c. Going take assumption. d. Materiality concept. Correct Marks for this submission 5/5.Question 2 Marks 5 The amount of accounts receivable that is actually expected to be collected is known as Choose one answer. a. Bad debts expense. b. Net manageable value. c. Allowance for doubtful accounts. d. The present value of accounts receivable. Correct Marks for this submission 5/5. Question 3 Marks 5 The practice of account the net realizable value of receivables in the financial statements is commonly called Choose one answer. a. the cash flow method of a ccounting for bad debts. b. the govern write-off method of accounting for bad debts. c. he allowance method of accounting for bad debts. d. Both a and b are correct. Correct Marks for this submission 5/5. Question 4 Marks 5 What does the accounts receivable farmover ratio measure? Choose one answer. a. How pronto the accounts receivable balance increases. b. How quickly inventory turns into accounts receivable. c. How quickly accounts receivable turn into cash. d. Average balance of accounts receivables. Correct Marks for this submission 5/5. Question 5 Marks 5 Which of the following businesses would most likely have the longest operating cycle? Choose one answer. a. A case pharmacy kitchen range. b. A discount store. c. A producer of wine. d. A chain of pizza restaurants. Incorrect Marks for this submission 0/5. 1 Marks 5 What is the name used for the type of secured bond that requires a make happy of a designated piece of property in case of default? Choose one answer. a. Debenture confiscate b. Indenture Bond c. Mortgage Bond d. Registered Bond Correct Marks for this submission 5/5. Question 2 Marks 5 Which of the following would be classified as a long-term operational asset? Choose one answer. a. Accounts Receivable b.Treasury melodic line c. Inventory d. Goodwill Correct Marks for this submission 5/5. Question 3 Marks 5 Jocelyn Corporation recorded the following in its general journal on 1/1/06 Cash 98,000 give the axe on Bonds Payable 2,000 Bonds Payable 100,000 Which of the following answers correctly describes the transaction on 1/1/06? Choose one answer. a. Jocelyn issued bonds at 98. b. Jocelyn issued bonds at 102. c. Jocelyn issued bonds at a $2,000 premium. d. Jocelyn signed a note payable for $98,000. Correct Marks for this submission 5/5. Question 4 Marks 5 Which of the following terms is used to identify the process of expense recognition for property, form and equi pment? Choose one answer. a. Amortization b. Depletion c. Depreciation d. Revision Correct Marks for this submission 5/5. Question 5 Marks 5 Which method of depreciation is used by most U. S. companies for financial reporting purposes? Choose one answer. a. Straight Line b. MACRS c. Double Declining Balance d. Units of Production Correct Marks for this submission 5/5.

Saturday, January 26, 2019

Effect of supply and demand and gas in our lifetime Essay

Oil has been an integral socio-stinting vehicle which in spite of appearance the corporate scene remains a highly rivalrous socio- economical driver. Due to vast delectation ups and demand, anoint has perplex controversial and elastic in socio-politics. Here we see it causing socio constraints in cover producing countries and collapsing political institutions. socially inunct has a significant contribution in our general lifestyle. It has a comparative role at bottom the context of mobility and industrial function w here(predicate) it is utilise in factories as well as in institutions which do comburent machinery.It is a de margininant of economic prowess of a country. It plays a study role in research and advancement of power generation and use of bio fuels to ease environmental pollution. Gas is valuable in our lives establish on the fact that it eases the burden of power use in cooking and within many socio institutions especially within our families. Gas also has be en highly agonistical and still remains so with many countries seeking to sustain demand. recently European countries grapp take with Russian telephoner Gazprom over summate of be adrift when the company threatened to cut supplies.This paper reflects on the major effects of oil and bluster on our lives in divers(a) aspects of socio-political economy and its profundity. This profundity establishes the oil and swash use and contribution to socio-economics and politics. This analytical review covers environmental, political and research contributions, so as to keep sustenance of the same at per with developments in the scientific trends within our lives which drain strength resources and adversely effect socio-economic stability. Contribution to socio economics Economic growth is dependent on energy resources.Energy provide within the development panoramas of a nation deplete economic inlet and create more apertures for industrial improvement in the nation. The distributi on of resources within this economic perspective contributes to social economic growth out-of-pocket to the dissemination of the resources made and gained from the industrial progression. Socio-economic progress is what supports the constituents of the society, namely the family. Most families own vehicles, machinery and combustible equipment that require oil to run them. They own various oil go by dint of devices the comparables of generators which they use to get power and run their daily activities.This perspective of integrating resources ground on oil found contribution and enormousness is indicative of the pivotal role oil plays in the economic progression of a nation and a residential district. On the negative aspect, oil has truly diverse negative effects on social economic gains and has led to the disintegration of economic stability within the units of the society. Increase in oil prices leads to stifling of social economics due to constrained send awaying so a s to meet the higher cost of fuel. This constraint forces individuals to over spend and increased prices of goods and services.The effect spreads within the society to the most unfortunate and stirs ferment due to the high prices. On the same aspect oil has been a very competitive socially owned inhering resources which in as many countries has caused political divisions and social disintegration. Communities in developing nations possess been tangle in long civil wars like in Nigeria. Nations with superior industrial needs commence sought after taking advantage of lesser nations to establish forced oil drilling concessions so as to convey a monopoly in the production of oil and directly befit their economic needs while hurting that of the producing country.The performance of the portfolio might be thrifty by the effects of changes in energy costs and availability of energy on the economy. Another portfolio measure might be the effects of the meld of energy sources on the di versity and vulnerability of the supply. Generating Electric Power in the Pacific Northwest Implications of Alternative Technologies Christopher G. Pernin, Mark A. Bernstein, Andrea Mejia, Howard Shih, Fred Rueter, Wilbur Steger 2002. p 15 take on Resources Drilling oil has led to dilapidation of natural resources like forested land, marine resources and agricultural land.The effect on these natural resources is fundamentally destruction of their existence so as to create sufficient geographic expedition and drilling acreage. To excavate gas or oil, exploration and seismic good deal has to be conducted on very significant argona of acreage which solely reduces this athletic field to a wasteful land for many years. The long term effect is that, the existing resources and land itself becomes wasted and polluted due to activities baffling to get the gas or oil out. However on that storey are positive attributes that come along with oil and gas production. at that place beingne ss of jobs on these areas benefits local and professionals who reserve relevant experience and knowledge on the activities related to drilling and producing oil and gas. Creation of infrastructure and connection to electric automobileity grids become the positive effects on the resources which can be utilized within the region the drilling or production is on going. The resources, like agricultural activities directly benefit from these changes and developments. Existing coffee factories get a boost to revert from using diesel engines to electricity. Communities are connected to the electric grid and can access electricity.Industries come up and processing of natural resources become easier. Proved militia are both drilled and un-drilled. The prove drilled reserves, in any pool, include oil estimated to be redeemable by the production systems now in operation, whether with or without fluid injection, and from the area actually drilled up on the spacing pattern in effect in tha t pool. The proved un-drilled reserves, in any pool, include reserves under un-drilled spacing units which are so close, and so related, to the drilled units that there is every reasonable probability that they will produce when drilled.Bruce C. Netschert The Future release of Oil and Gas A Study of the Availability of Crude Oil, born(p) Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids in the United States in the Period through and through 1975 1958. p 7 Development of option fuels Oil and gas take in led to positive research on energy needs globally. Companies and researchers have been seeking best solutions to the waning supplies and deposits of gas and oil to curb the grand collapse of the supply and demand. Discovery of coal mines, use of electric auto and trains development of utility(a) oil are diverse developments all based on the oil and gas supply and demand agenda.According to arguments based on the global perspective on demand and supply of gas and oil, it is questionable and much worrisome Are resources believably to be on tap(predicate) during the next fifty years in the quantities demand to satisfy intercommunicate demands without substantial increases in prices? If not, what price in- creases are likely to be necessary to close the gap in the midst of supply and demand, and what are the effects of those increases likely to be? Ronald G. Ridker & William D. Watson To Choose a Future Resource and environmental Consequences of Alternative Growth Paths. 980. p 96. Negative effects of the demand and supply is mainly seen within the oil curtails and supply context. International oil curtails have a stranglehold on the oil and gas prices and the effect of alternative oils becomes less dynamic and progressive stifling efforts to stipulate best policies to use to achieve the required progress in alternatives is slow. Implementation of development of alternative oils and energy resources has been ongoing. Creation of biodegradable oils has resolved much of the fears that demand would become elastic.Environmental effects Global warming and environmental degradation consequences on the flora are as a result of a dole out of oil and gas exploration activities. Secondly the use of oil and gas in industries and within the concepts of combustion has led to degradation of the environmental. Industrial wastewater related to oil has destroyed the flora while gaseous expelling like carbon emissions from vehicles and industrial machinery has destroyed the ozone layer resulting to global warming.There are literally no positive implications on the environment by oil and gas. However on the profound aspect of research go on of technology to improve on the air and to maintain a train of complacency within the ozone layer has led to discovery and global use of green houses and introduction of policies which reflect on addressing how to stop global warming. political and geo-political effects A lot of the current crisis within the global fronts is based on escalation of demand of oil and gas by major area like the United States.The demand for energy, especially based on oil supplies has become un-foreseeable, as such the need to have vast reserves of oil within proximity as insulation to the critical point of demand and elasticity of demand is important. Non-Marxist social science, needless to say, had to contend with the reality, where incidents of corporal violence were taking place all around. Facing this contradiction between their theory and reality, a compromise was reached by which it was hypothesized that anti-systemic conflict was only a temporary situation.This situation, they argued, would be symptomatic of the Third World nations going through a structural change. Structural change caused by the introduction of economic development and a new production relationship calls for the end to the traditional social and economic relationship. Dipak K. Gupta The Economics of semipolitical Violence The Effect of Polit ical Instability on Economic Growth. 1990 p 31 The issue here is that political prowess has influenced a lot of political inclinations in various nations within the world.On the same context, government policies to curb oil prices and to have reserves for future use have become null and wavering. The community within these jurisdictions suffer fluctuating oil prices and there is no unison in the pricing hence the problem of constantly adjusting to the new prices due to lack of legislation. Political problems have emanated from this point with extremist policies on encroachment of natural resources and barrel prices becoming tools of stifling economic progress in the communities.

Thursday, January 24, 2019

Behavior Therapy: Basic Concepts, Assessment Methods, and Applications

sort Th periodpy Basic Concepts, Assessment Methods, and Applications. Different kinds of psychotherapies arouse existed through turn up history, and stomach always been rooted in philosophical views of man nature (Wachtel P. , 1997). Specific altogethery, behaviour therapy intents to help separates oercome difficulties in nearly whatsoever aspect of humankind experience (Thorpe G. & antiophthalmic factor Olson S. , 1990). The techniques of look therapy swallow been employ to education, the workplace, consumer activities, and n ch angstromiontheless sports, but deportment therapy in clinical settings is whoppingly have-to doe with with the assessment of mental health fusss.In general, doings therapy is a type of psychotherapeutics that aims on changing undesirable types of expression. It engages in identifying objectionable, maladaptive carriages and replacing them with healthier ones. . According to Rimm D. & Masters J. (1974), the label behavior therapy com prises a large number of different techniques that behave use of psychological-especially accomplishment- principles to deal with maladaptive human behavior. Behavior therapy is a relative new kind of psychotherapy (Corsini R. & Wedding D. , 2008).As a doctrinal approach, behavior therapy began in the 1950s, in differentiate to assess and fragility psychological disorders. Behavior therapy was highly- go uped by a small group of psychologists and physicians who were not satisfied with the conventional techniques of psychotherapy (Thorpe G. et al, 1990). They tie in behavior therapy to experimental psychology, differentiating it from other preexisting approaches. During behavior therapys prototypical gear phase, the utilize developed from principles of chaste and operant conditioning. There atomic number 18 variable views nigh the best way to define behavior therapy.However, or so health professionals agree to Eysencks definition Behavior therapy is the attempt to al ter human behavior and perceptions in a beneficial way according to the laws of modern learning theory. Erwin E. (1978), instead of proposing a specific definition for behavior therapy, he referred to some basic and classical attributes that this therapy possesses. According to Erwin, behavior therapy is employ by and large to lessen human suffering or to improve human functioning. He pointed out that it is a psychological rather than a biologic cause of treatment.In the cases of phobias treatment, behavior therapy is usually apply to treat the symptoms directly. Moreover, behavior therapy is characteristically used to modify maladaptive behavior or to teach adaptive behavior. This center that the focus is on individuals behavior. In some cases, behavior therapy techniques may all the same be used to reduce unwanted mental evinces as in Davinsons (1968) use of counterconditioning to reduce sadistic fantasy, simply because the mental state itself is unwanted (as stated in Erwin, 1978).Another basic characteristic of behavior therapy is that it is a lot used in an incremental rather than a holistic fashion. Problems that ar to be handle are number 1 divided into their fragments and each component is treated separately. Last, behavior therapy is studied and used experimentally, being closely think to learning theory research. iii main approaches in contemporary behavior therapy have been identified (Corsini R. et al, 2008). These are the applied behavior analysis (ABA), the neobehavioristic meditational stimulus- re carve upee model, and the loving cognitive theory.ABA refers to the application of the principles of learning and motivation from Behavior Analysis (the scientific study of behavior), and the procedures and technology derived from those principles, to the solution of problems of social signifi squirtce. This approach is establish on mule drivers radical behaviorism. It identifies behaviors that should be extinguished and behaviors that are to be taught. It makes use of reinforcement, penalisation, extinction, stimulus control, and other procedures derived from laboratory research (Corsini R. et al, 2008).It is most often applied to children with autistic spectrum disorders, but is an effective tool for children with behavioural disorders, quaternary disabilities, and severe intellectual handicaps. The neobehavioristic meditational stimulus-response (S-R) model features the applications of the principles of classical conditioning, and it derives from the learning theories of Ivan Pavlov, E. Guthrie, lark Hull, O. Mowrer, and N. miller (as cited in Corsini et al, 2008). The S-R model has been linked to systematic desensitization and flooding.Systematic desensitization was developed by Joseph Wolpe (1958). It is a therapy for phobias based on counterconditioning -a technique for eliminating a instruct response that involves p standard pressureing a conditioned stimulus with another numberless stimulus to c ondition a new response. If the new response in incompatible with the old response, so that only one response buns occur at a time, then the new response clear replace the old one. In systematic desensitization, patients visualize fear- evoking stimuli while relaxing, to fellow traveler the stimuli with relaxation instead of fear. (Lieberman D. , 2004).Flooding is another psychotherapeutic technique discover by psychologist Thomas Stampfl (1967) (as cited in Harold, 1990) that is still used in behavior therapy to treat phobias. It works by exposing the individual to painful memories they already have aiming to deposit together their repressed feelings with their current awareness. Flooding works on the principles of classical conditioning (Lieberman D. , 2004). Social cognitive theory (SCT) refers to learning in harm of interaction among external stimulus response, external reinforcement, and cognitive meditational wait ones (Corsini et al 2008).Personal and environmental fac tors do not function as independent determinants rather, they intend each other. It is mainly through their behavior that individuals produce the environmental conditions that tinge their behavior in a mutual way. wise experiences are evaluated in relation to the past prior experiences help to subsequently direct and testify the individual as to how the present should be considered. Behavior therapy has mainly been associated with the era between 1950 and 1960, especially with the theories of I. Pavlov, E. mule skinner, J. Wolpe, and A.Bandura (Yates A. , 1975). It is a clinical application of psychology that relies on empirically-validated principles and procedures (Plaud, 2001). Since the first behavior therapy alternatives to the psychoanalysis and other associated therapies were introduced almost 50 agone (Wolpe, 1958), constant improvements in behavior therapy have mostly been supplied by its macrocosm on conditioning principles and theories (Eifert Plaud, 1998). Specifi cally, behavior therapy relies exclusively on the experimental methodological analysis initiated by I. Pavlov. Clinical applications of Pavlovian onditioning principles began in 1912, when one of Pavlovs students, was the first to establish the counter-conditioning effect in the laboratory. Studies on anxiety have intimately assisted behavior therapys study. According to Wolpe and Plaud (1997), Wolpes experimental studies were based on the implications of early Pavlovian experiments by giving emphasis to the splendor of the conditioning procedures. Actually, Wolpe made important contributions to behavioral therapy, such as proposing systematic desensitization and assertiveness training, both of which have become important elements of behavioral therapy.Albert Bandura is usually associated with the development of the social cognitive theory (Corsini et al, 2008). Albert Banduras social cognitive theory derived from social learning theory. It aims to excuse how behavioral principle s and norms are well-read through an interaction of the individual and his/her environment, mostly through the observing others. Skinner worked on radical behaviorism. He rejected traditional psychology and all the hold concepts that referred to what he called mentalism.That meant any concept that revealed a belief in cause and effect relationships between mental activities and conditioned behavior. In the 1966 interpretation of his 1928 book, The Behavior of Organisms, Skinner still named the belief that emotions are important factors in behavior a mental fiction. In addition, he purpose that it is wrong, or at least not scientific, to consider that people cry because they are sorry or tremble because they are afraid. Behavior therapy developed rapidly. Three waves, that actually are three divisions of the behavior therapys development, have been proposed.The first wave focused mainly on altering overt behavior. The act wave focused on the cognitive factors that contribute to behavior. This approach is in similar manner known as cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). The third wave of behavior therapy was proposed by Hayes, Hollette, and Linehan (as cited in Corsini et al, 2008). It includes dialectical behavior therapy (DBT), and acceptance and commitment therapy ( defend). On the whole, DBT claims that some individuals, due to unfavorable environments during childhood and due to unknown biological factors, react abnormally to emotional stimulation.Their level of arousal increases much to a greater extent rapidly, peaks at a higher level, and takes more time to go stomach to baseline. DBT is a technique for learning skills that aids to reduce this reaction. DBT applies mindfulness, inter in the flesh(predicate) effectiveness, emotion regulation, and distress tolerance skills (Yates A. , 1975). Mindfulness skills include core skills. They are the most difficult skills to accomplish, but when lettered, the process of thoughts and emotions occurs in an sig nificantly different manner.Some of the processes included to the mindfulness skill, as listed by Corsini et al (2008), are the following notice or attend to emotions without trying to terminate them when painful, describe a thought or emotion, be nonjudgmental, stay in the present, focus on one thing at a time (one-mindfully). Mindfulness skills are applied in later sessions, when the other (three) types of skills on focus. Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is a quite new type of psychotherapy, found by Steven C. Hayes in the mid 1990s.It is the development and combination of behavioral therapy and cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), which has mostly been the established therapy for treatment of conditions like depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorders. Acceptance and commitment therapy, like CBT, is based on the philosophical system of Functional Contextualism, a modern philosophy of learning rooted in philosophical pragmatism and scopeualism, suggesting t hat words and ideas can only be understood within some kind of context and they are therefore often misinterpreted due to the fact that people have individual contexts.An additional therapy that has had an impact on ACT is relative chuck therapy, a type of behavioral analysis focused on dustup and learning. ACT is differentiated from CBT since it directly accepts the thought, Everybody hates me. This thought is viewed without passion, and sometimes it is transformed to a phrase like I am having the thought that everybody hates me. Ding so may be repeated until the thought becomes defused. Hayes identifies about atomic number 6 defusion techniques in ACT. Previous distracting thoughts are not actively dismisses by the individual going through ACT.This is another distinguishing factor from CBT which intends to reduce distracting and unhelpful thoughts. ACT therapists argue that the process of their therapy is much briefer than CBT, and for that reason it is considered more effec tive. There is a variety of concepts referring to behavior therapy. Two main categories of those concepts are the learning principles and the personal variables. In classical conditioning, the investigator begins with identifying a reflex response, one that is unrestrained regularly by a specific stimulus (Thorpe et al, 1990). In humans, these reflexes include he eye-blink response to dust or a puff of air in the eye, and the reflex of the knee jerk reflex in response to a hit in the correct point by the researchers hammer. Such reflexes appear regularly without any particular guidance, so they are considered to be unlearned or unconditioned. Classical conditioning occurs when a new stimulus acquires the ability to trigger one of these reflex responses. operative conditioning makes use of the principles of (positive or negative) reinforcement and (positive/negative) punishment to bring about a desired response. (Lieberman D. 1994). Positive reinforcement is the intromission of s omething pleasant or rewarding immediately following a behavior, but In contradict Reinforcement a particular behavior is strengthened by the resultant of the stopping or avoiding of a negative condition. Moving to punishment, negative punishment occurs when in an attempt to decrease the likelihood of a behavior occurring in the future, an operant response is followed by the removal of a desired stimulus, though in positive punishment an operant response is followed by the presentation of an aversive stimulus.Operant conditioning occurs when a consequence eventually becomes expected for a particular behavior. One example would be when a student is rewarded for getting good grades. The positive outcome of their behavior to study and achieve pucker those grades is motivated by the anticipation of a positive result in addition to the good grades. In order to teach individuals decomposable tasks, Skinner proposed a system of successive approximations of operant learning where tasks are illogical down into several steps that, when individually learned, summarily progress towards the complex task desired.Extinction refers to the reducing the probability of a response when a characteristic reinforcing stimulus is no longer presented. Discrimination learning is the process by which individuals learn to differentiate their responses to different stimuli. When the opposite occurs, that is when individuals fail to discriminate between different situations ending up with behavior on situations other than that in which it was acquired, generalization takes place (Corsini R. et al, 2008). Personal variables that were proposed by Mischel (1973, as cited in Corsini R. et al, 2008), explain and swapping between individual and situation.They include the individuals competences to create vary behaviors under appropriate conditions, his/her perception of events and people (including the self), expectancies, subjective values and self-regulatory systems. Behavior therapy is applied for and aims to treat only learned behavioral problems. Sometimes, however, health and learned behavioral problems coexist. Whether the individual being in treatment has a learned behavioral problem alone, or a learned problem which coexists with a learned one has to be determined in the beginning of the process of behavior therapy.Two additional possible situations are either the individual in therapy to have a learned behavior problem as part of a psychosomatic disorder, or to have a medical problem that just appears to have been learned (Yates A. , 1975). Behavioral assessment is vital to behavior therapy. It developed rapidly during the 1970s, after initially being a covered part of behavior therapy in terms of research and professional development (Thorpe G. , et al, 1990). Now, behavior assessment is a rich and diverse subfield of behavior therapy that continues to develop rapidly.In clinical settings, behavior therapy is a method for treating mental health problems. interference involves proposing and putting into practice a plan of action that aims to resolve a problem. Deciding on the plan of action depends on the problem grooming so what has to be done in the early sessions of the therapy is the agreement of the therapist and the client on what is wrong and what has to be changed to improve or even eliminate it. Behavior therapy uses a number of assessment methods. In channelize imagery the individual is guided in imagining a relaxing slam or series of experiences (Rimm D. t al, 1974). When an individual visualizes an imagined scene reacts as though it were actually occurring therefore, imagined images can have a great impact on behavior. Role playing is a technique used in behavior therapy to provide partaking and involvement in the learning process (Thorpe G. et al, 1990). It helps the individual (learner) to gather up objective feedback about his/her performance. Role playing techniques can be applied to motivate individuals pay more attention to their interpersonal state.One of its most important aspects is that it helps the learner experience a real life situation in a protected setting. Physiological recording, self-monitoring, behavioral observation, and psychological tests and measurements are some more examples of the assessment techniques that can be applied during the behavior therapy (Corsini R. et al, 2008). In general, behavior therapists do not use standardized psychodiagnostic tests and projective tests. They broadly make use of checklists and questionnaires, self-report scales of depression, assertion inventories, etc.These assessment techniques are not sufficient for carrying out a functional analysis of the determinants of a problem, but they are effectual in establishing the initial severity of the problem and charting therapeutic efficacy over the course of treatment. In conclusion, the clinical investigations of behavior therapists have significantly ameliorate our understanding of how our behavior is coordinated with external events that occur in our lives they have created ways of mediating in disturbing interpersonal aspects that were not efficiently treated through other kinds of therapy.Behavior therapy can be applied to treat a full range of psychological disorders. These include anxiety disorders, depression and suicide, intimate dysfunctions, marital problems, eating and weight disorders, addictive disorders, schizophrenia, childhood disorders, phobias, pain management, hypertension, ginmill and treatment of cardiovascular disease, etc. (Thorpe G. et al, 1990). References Corsini R, & Wedding D. (2008). Current Psychotherapies. New York Thomson Brooks/Cole. Eifert, G. , & Plaud, J. (1998). From behavior theory to behavior therapy (pp. 1-14).Boston, MA Allyn & Bacon. Erwin E. (1978). Behavior Therapy Scientific, Philosophical, & Moral Foundations. New York Cambridge University Press. Harold (1990). Handbook of Social and military rank Anxiety. New York Plenum Press. Lieberman D. (2004). Learning and Memory an integrative approach. United states Thomson Wadsworth. Plaud, J. (2001). Clinical science and human behavior. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 57, 1089-1102. Rimm D. , & Masters J. (1974). Behavior Therapy Techniques and verifiable Findings. New York Academic press. Thorpe G. , & Olson S. 1990). Behavior Therapy Concepts, Procedures and Applications. Boston Allyn and Bacon. Wachtel P. , (1997). Psychoanalysis, Behavior Therapy, and the Relational World. Washington DC American Psychological Association. Wolpe, J. , & Plaud, J. (1997). Pavlovs contributions to behavior therapy The obvious and the not so obvious. American Psychologist, 52, 966-972. Wolpe, Joseph. 1958. Psychotherapy by interactive Inhibition. Stanford, CA Stanford University Press. Yates A. , 1975). Theory and Practice in Behavior Therapy. New York lav Wiley & Sons.

Tuesday, January 22, 2019

Procurement and Acuisitions Management: Fair Housing Internship

SOC 4490 Fall, 2010 A- Term Internship in Sociology Instructor Student November 14, 2010 A Sociological regard of a Non-Profit Organization comme il faut lodging Internship cosmos This paper bequeath provide an analysis of an internship performed at the fundamental aluminum seemly trapping Center (CAFHC), Montgomery, Alabama. This paper will give an overview of the internship program and its requirements, the history of the blank caparison Act, a sociological review of elegant accommodate, and discuss the responsibilities and observations make during the internship.To qualify for the Sociology Internship Program, a pupil had to be an infragraduate recreateing toward a degree in Social Sciences. The program was designed to provide fit undergraduate students with pay backs in a government, non-profit, or overt advantage institutions under the supervision of a efficiency member.The internship consisted of conducting tasks assigned by the agency supervisor, maintaining a journal describing activities performed and ex intentionations of how they related to sociology, recording personal feelings about the experiences, a tenner page paper related to the internship experience and figureing 150 hours at the Central Alabama bring together caparison Center. The objective lens of the internship was to vex the student apply skills and lastledge conditioned during completion of brotherly science course flex and, to work in a non-profit agency under the supervision of a faculty member.The methods of evaluating the internship allowd meeting twice a month with the instructor/advisor and discussing journal entries, being evaluated by the agency supervisor for work performance, rating by the instructor and writing an internship research paper due by December 7, 2010. History of the bonnie admit Act On April 4, 1968, idealistic Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. , was assassinated. This act unleashed a firestorm of civic unrest in urban communities across t he nation ( passably Housing Report, 2008).A week to the day afterwards Kings assassination, President Lyndon Johnson signed into law the federal Fair Housing Act (Title VIII of the Civil Rights Act of 1968). This law, co-sponsored by Senator Walter Mondale and Edward Brooke, had been languishing in Congress for two geezerhood and except passed because of the response to the assassination and subsequent events (National Fair Housing Alliance, 2008). In 1988, the law was amended by the Fair Housing Amendments Act, co-sponsored by Senator Edward Kennedy and Arlen Specter.This law significantly strengthened the enforcement forefinger of the Act, enceinte the segment of Housing and Urban Development and Department of Justice the part to enforce and expand the reach of the law while still providing for clannish enforcement mechanism (NFHA, 2008). The Fair Housing Act is now one and only(a) of the much or less powerful tools in our civil sort outs arsenal but it can only be as effective as the skilled application and disembodied spirit of the user of this tool (NFHA, 2008).Sociological Review of Fair Housing The United States Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) has defined the term bazaar living accommodations choice as the energy of a persons of similar income levels to have the aforementioned(prenominal) available housing choice regardless of race, color, religion, sex, national origin, familial lieu or disability (Analysis of Impediment to Fair Housing Choice, 2004).The Central Alabama Fair Housing Center is a non-profit agency, working to ensure adapted housing opportunities for all people regardless of race, color, national origin, religion, sex, familial emplacement (having or expecting children), or disability. Discrimination occurs when housing providers treat people differently because of their race, color, national origin, religion, sex, familial status, or disability. The Fair Housing Act prohibits inconsistency in rent al, gross revenue, mortgage lending, and dwelling insurance markets. Il intelligent ractices include channelise people to or away from a neighborhood or beas ground on race (steering), refusing to insure or finance a home based on the racial make-up of a neighborhood, not allowing a guide dog or wheelchair ramp in an apartment building, demanding inner party favors in exchange for rental assistance, inflating the price of a home to warn someone from making an offer, refusing to rent an apartment to a person with assist or HIV and selectively asking for a green post-horse or another(prenominal) documentation based on an applicants accent or ethnic background (CAFHC, 2010).Karl Marx, the nineteenth-century father of communism and one of the founders of the Conflict Theory viewed familiarity as consisting of primarily two classes capitalists, or owners of the means of production, and proletariats, or workers, who were exploited by the capitalist (Harford, 2005). Marxs region of classes is not the only division. Max Weber, an outspoken critic of Marxs views, argued that topographic point is not the sole basis of class. Instead, class is determined by the threesome ps- property, prestige, and power.Webers more general concept of class is accept by many but their views of how to qualify fairness of prestige and power has been often different (Harford, 2005). Using Webers concept, when taking a look at the Fair Housing Act, we see that forty years after the Fair Housing Act, there be still more than 3. 7 million instances of discrimination reported each year (U. S. sanction of the Census). African-Americans, Latinos, Asian Americans and American Indians report unfair treatment within the rental, sales and insurance market daily.Marx and Weber categories deal only with stintingal stratification however fair housing studies show that discrimination occurs regardless of economic status. For example a study performed by The National company Reinvestment merger (NCRC) showed that low- and moderate-income minorities received a lower portion of prime loans than high-cost loans. Lenders seem to favor middle- and upper-income white house intimidate borrowers with prime loans. In comparison, African-American with middle- and upper-income households received a lower percent of all prime and high-cost loans (NCRCs 2007).Staff Responsibility&038 Duties work as an intern with the Fair Housing Center has been very informatory and exciting. As an intern, I observed the various module members and their farm outs duties. I learned the importance of each military position. The Executive director of a Fair Housing Center (FHC) must oversee, motivate and support lag members, each of whom argon very valuable team members. The Executive Director oversees all of a FHCs departments (including counseling, outreach, investigations and litigation) and is responsible for preparing and overseeing FHCs annual operating budget.The Executive Director also ensures that The Fair Housing Center is fulfilling its contractual obligations to numerous political entities. Periodically, the Executive Director must attend city council or other meetings, and network with others in the non-profit community, including topical anesthetic non-profit organizations, and fair housing organizations throughout the country. The Director, on with the rest of the Fair Housing Centers management team, oversees the Fair Housing Centers annual summits and conferences. Centers round also includes test coordinators.This is normally a full time staff member and duties include the recruiting and study of testers, designing and analyzing tests, and maintaining test files and other records. To hold this type of position, most prospects should have experience in conducting tests, great utterance skills, and experience in research analysis as, training in the fundamentals of fair housing. The test coordinator must be an advocate for civil rights and hav e earned at least(prenominal) a Bachelor of Science degree. A Fair Housing Specialist (Enforcement Specialist) is normally a part-time staff member.Duties include intake screening, demographic research, data collection and analysis, identification of public impediments to fair housing choice, and enforcement-related outreach. He/she can also assist in developing test strategies and performing analysis as well as assist in writing reports as requested. To hold a position as a Fair Housing Specialist (Enforcement Specialist), candidates should have had training in the fundamentals of fair housing, have knowledge of civil rights, know how to conduct research, understand area demographics, and have earned at least a Bachelors Degree in a social science field.The position of attorney is a full time position. Duties include intake, client representation in HUD, taking administrative actions, conducting public and licit education programs, serving as a liaison to secluded attorneys, con ducting legal and other research, and maintaining intake and case files. To qualify for this position a candidate must have a J. D. degree, a demonstrated commitment to civil rights, and an ability to work with diverse communities. The position of administrative Assistant/ mooring Manager is normally a part-time position.The duties include general tycoon management, clerical tasks and serving as the office receptionist. Candidates for the position should have experience working for the public, very good social skills, an understanding of civil rights, ability to work with people from diverse backgrounds and experiences in non-profit office management. Summary and Conclusions The objective of the internship was for me to incorporate the knowledge learned from my social science classes into skills while interning.During my interning with the fair housing marrow, my responsibilities and activities included reviewing fair housing laws, reading over Central Alabama Fair Housing Centers grant proposals and work deliveries, discussing non-profit grant management/grant writing/daily operations of a non-profit organization with director, observing operations of organization, including siting in on a job interview, learning about division of staff duties in the office, helping to experience grant activities/outreach and distribution files/information, deciding on a distribution plan for grant deliveries, helping to develop radio campaigns plans, learning about in-kind service donations, sitting in on fair housing education programs for housing management and developing a new survey for the city. Interning for a fair housing center provided a vehicle for travel that could and is helping society to achieve the balance and integrated living patterns envisioned by the authoritative authors of The Civil Rights Act. While we have made some progress in reducing levels of residential segregation, most Americans still live in communities that are largely divided by race and ethnicity, ( National Fair Housing Alliance, 2008). Personal Thoughts and Opinions My experience as an intern with the Central Alabama Fair Housing was very informative, exciting and a helpful experience to me as a upcoming director of my own non-profit agency.Although I will not provide services that will pertain to civil rights, having an fortune to work within a fine tuned organization, learning the operations, and experiencing firsthand the everyday workings within a non-profit agency was the best experience that a future director could have. Experiencing outreach, research development, grant writing, organization application and Fair Housing training while interning, allow me to understand the importance of loving what you are called to do and showed me the difference one can make in society. I got a chance to learn that a fair housing center is one link that is connected to many links to form a chain called HUD, the Department of Housing and Urban Development.The fair housi ng centers are local centers that help to enforce justice that has been mandated by the civil right laws, expand comprehensive requirements of the civil rights law, while still providing a private enforcement mechanism for the area communities. The fair housing centers are state and local portals that are used to report, provide insight and attain answers for our nations struggles to achieve the benefit of living in richly diverse communities. Having an opportunity to learn while being a part of the non-profit arena, gave me the fuel need to continue striving for justice. . References Analysis of Impediments To Fair Housing, Montgomery city, 2004, August, Overview of what the Fair Housing Act Complaints. Harford, Tim, The Undercover Economist Exposing Why the Rich Are Rich, the piteous Are Poor and Why You Can Never Buy a Decent Used Car, New York Little Brown, 2005. Hunt, Elgin f. , and Colander, David C. , Social Science An Introduction to the Study of Society, 3rd edition, copy right 2008, Person publishing company. National Community Reinvestment Coalition, conducted data file analysis, 2007 www. ncrc. org WWW National Fair Housing Alliance, 2008 Fair Housing Trend Report, April 8, 2008 www. nationalfairhousing. org WWW U. S Bureau of the Census, Income www. census. gov/hhes/www/poverty. hypertext mark-up language WWW U. S. Bureau of Census, Poverty www. census. gov/hhes/www/income. html

Wednesday, January 16, 2019

A&P Response

This story, in all h cardinalsty, did not have in mind me or stimulate intriguing thoughts. I felt the worry the beginning gave a lot of his snip to describe the scene and the appearance of characters that in that location was nothing really going on. I spent most of my time while reading trying to figure issue or thought process what certain things looked like rather than anticipating what whitethorn be happening next. boilers suit this story did not engage me nor hold my interest.I did on the other croak find the dash Sammys attitude to toward the girls rather baffling because present atomic number 18 these three girls, two of which he mentions are overweight and not on the attractive side, and then Queenie whom he points out is too grim but yet in a sense eye edulcorate. It was contradictory how he felt a pull towards them as currently as he noticed them and felt the conduct to quit his patronage and become their self proclaimed hero. Was he just as strange or j ust someone who really needs the attention?Sammy meets the need of ones standards that may be classified as a normal and average teenage boy. He works, is easily distracted, and has a keen interest in girls. With Sammys vernacular and his actions he comes off as awkward by the time the story ends. He describes the girls the best behavior he knows how but uses a lot of similes and metaphors instead of just stating what one of their skin looks likes or what her body looks like. And when he describes the shoppers he makes them seem like they are suffering from oppression.As if they are they because they have to be just like he is there because he has no choice. And when something goes wrong or something out of the ordinary happens, like him quitting, they seem disconnected at what to do next. that like the customers/shoppers when Sammy said I quit, he was not expecting it and was lost himself. And because he decided to quit out of nowhere to be an uncertified hero for these girls t hat he may possibly never see again, he knows he more than likely cannot get his channel back and without that job, how is he suppose to survive out in the world with no notes?I think the story endorses personal esteems. And the value of appearance is super criticized because Sammy talks about how unattractive two out of three of the girls are based off his opinion which does not matter to these girls who may value their appearance and feel comfortable in every aspect of their bodies. Sammys actions to quit his job were stupid. He did not need to quit his job and try to be a hero to get their attention.He could of stood up for them without victimization I quit especially after the girls already make their commission to the door and possibly unaware of what he is doing for them. In a way he came off as someone who needs to make a scene to be heard instead of just speaking with assertiveness. In a way this story has no point. It is a great face of realistic fiction. With the way certain descriptions laid out how the store may and even Sammys uniform may look. It was believable.

Runic alphabet,

Interrogated and introductory scar, for physical exercise, m all(prenominal) children bring out b instead of d, and may any(prenominal)times conf design p, q, and g. Teachers see these errors every furthest(predicate) the time, and gradually work to do kids fix them. But as a caring pargonnt, should you worry? The stakes atomic recite 18 postgraduate. DO these letter problems taper something deeper, such sidesaddle? To sort out the hype, we turned to two pros Linda Selves, executive director Director of the New York branch of the International Dyslexia Association, and Eileen cretan dittany, PhD. A past identity card President of that organization, a professor of special education, and a teacher and tutor in private practice with dyslexic children for more than thirty course of studys. Heres what they gain to say when it comes to three common fears about Wesleyan, and identifying it in kindergarten and firstborn grade children Myth Youll know its dyslexia when a kid flips letters or misspells a lot. detail While some dyslexic flock may do this, its non the main problem Dyslexia, explains Selves, is a neurologically based learning baulk in which people founder difficulty associating sounds with letters. Lots of kids who bring through b for d, or re indite a nonher(prenominal)wise letters, atomic number 18 expert making sonny boy mistakes whats more serious is when they push aside non hear the b in bear, and th sign, instead, that it may be a d or p. Backwards letters al genius re not cause for worry, according to the experts. In kindergarten, explains Marjoram, dyslexic kids will have trouble in some(prenominal) related areas. Taken together, these Signs indicate that a child is not making the all-important connection between letters, sounds, and al-Quran conveying. Instead of worrying yourself sick about reversed letters, l would go steady further, says Marjoram.If by the end of a full year of good counsel in kindergart en, a child gitt do all or almost of the following, past its time to be concerned easily name all the letters of the rudi handst, with most sounds detect rhyming run-in ear sign sounds, like the c in cat. Identify basic sight intelligences like is or the recognize env exhortmental print like the word stop on a roadside sign Myth 2 You cant really diagnose dyslexia until a kid is seven or eight. Fact Kindergarten is not too azoic to evaluate a child. In fact, says Selves, too soon interposition is key.The endless you wait, the more the problem grows. Children quickly authorize when something is wrong. Its all too easy for them to conclude, l cant read so I must be really dumb, Selves says. If your kindergarten does display most of the signs in a lavishlyer place, two Selves and Marjoram emphasize that you should seek an evaluation with a qualified specialist, either through with(predicate) your school or through independent experts such as those certify by the Intern ational Dyslexia Association. Dont let your school convince you to wait. Early intervention makes a huge difference. Http// c mm/ magazine nee/ phrase/ Kinder Stories, Poems, and Literature from the Viking Age 13th century Icelandic manuscript Our experience of the Viking people comes from several sources. One valu up to(p) source is the books from the finish. Scandinavian people loved stories, and some of the stories and poems they themselves wrote, and that their ascendants wrote still survive. Stories about the Scandinavian were similarly pen by their contemporaries, including both their trading partners (such as the Arabs) and the victims of their raids (such as the Christian clerics who kept the historical records in Europe).This section breaks pen records the Viking-age people unexpended behind. Language The Scandinavian spoke Old Scandinavian, which they called depletes tuna (the danish pastry tongue). With squirt variations, this talking to was speak end-to-end the Scandinavian lands during the Viking stoppage. Old Norse is unrivaled of ten branches that cake up the Indo-European family of oral communications which have been spoken throughout Europe and southern Asia for the last 3000 years. Old Norse is the root language from which the novel Scandinavian languages descended, and is a close relative of modern position, Dutch, and German.During the period from 550050 AD, rapid linguistic changes occurred, which separated the Norse from different Germanic people on the European continent to the south and west. During the Viking age, language was no obstacle to communication across the Norse lands from Greenland to the Baltic, nearly the same language was spoken throughout. However, there is indisputablety that, despite the common language, a mans homeland could be identified by his speech. approximately scholars today would go further and say that by the start of the Norse era, significant differences already existed between East No rse (Sweden and Denmark) and West Norse (Norway and the Atlantic settlements such as Iceland) dialects. Writing and runic letters The footwork runic alphabet (so called for the sounds of the first six letters in the runic row) was in wide use throughout northern Europe from roughly the tertiary to the 12th century. At first, 24 letters were used, nevertheless in the 9th century, he footwork alphabet was simplified to 16 letters, starting line in Denmark, then promptly spreading throughout the region. legion(predicate) variations of the footwork runic letter row were used unmatched of the Danish variants is repointn above. In the same way that a modern lector of English would recognize all these glyphs as representing an upper case a Viking-age reader would recognize the many ways a runic letter magnate be represented. The runes consist of straight course of studys, typically in the digit of a straight (a stave) with diagonal branches (twigs). The lack of any curves ma kes the runes easy to carve into wood, bone, or stone, which were the sane indite materials mongo the Norse.Runes are found carved graf chokei-like into historical buildings and statuary not just in northern Europe, solely all across the continent, intelligibly showing the extent to which the Norse roamed over Europe. The marble lion shown in the sketch to the left wing is from outside Piraeus, near Athens, Greece, where some unknown Norse traveler carved runic graffiti into the shoulder of the beast. Judging from the tour of inscriptions found on stones in Nordic lands that were clearly intended to be seen and read, and from the number of everyday objects scratch with runes, it is possible that such of the Norse state could read runes. many another(prenominal) of the inscriptions are in the system of memorial stones, such as those illustrated below on this page. These stones are highly public memorials. Theres scarcely any reason to erect them if most of the population cou ld not read them. Many everyday objects are found inscribed with the owners name, or the makers name, or other centers. Runic inscriptions have been found ranging from trade and legal documents such as bills of sale, all the way to coarse lavatory scribbling. whatsoever runic inscriptions are clearly just for fun a comb was found inscribed l am a comb.Some inscriptions may have been the like of Post-It notes one wooden Ernestine from Bergen is inscribed Cathy says come home. Additional evidence of widespread literacy comes from the old Icelandic literature. In an episode from Importations (chi 34), it was not considered the to the lowest degree bit remarkable that a poor, unnamed Icelandic from the northern take up was able to read the inscription on a buried precious stone chest. In chapter 18 of Vigilant saga, Strikergs father HLempel left a rune burn on the path where Vigorous and Transit were genuine to find it as they rode to the ship that loud take them away from Icela nd.On the mother were Strikergs words saying she wanted to marry no other man but Vigilantly. There was no question that V(giggling would be able to read the message. rour challenged Klaus to a wrestling match via a message on a rune stick in chapter 12 of Savorsla saga. Interestingly, just two chapters later, Klaus and Gar(s found runes carved on a ship name the skipper, which Klaus was unable to read. He demanded that Grim read them. Wooden constitution tablets deliver the goods additional evidence of the widespread use of runic writing among typefaceless people.The tablet shown in the photos is a odder reproduction. The historic tablets are about 20-CACM high (about 8-12 in) and were filled with blackened wax within their raised b pitchs. A pointed iron fashion was used to write in the wax (top right). The reproduction stylus in the photos is set in an antler which allows a nice grip and which can be used to smooth the wax and erase unwanted writing (bottom right). The wo oden surface of historical tablets from the Norse era bear mark where the stylus broke through the wax, and the marks show that the runic alphabet Was being used.These tablets are more commonly found in country areas, ether than in towns, suggesting that even remote farm d headspringers could read and write runes. On the other hand, objects have been found inscribed with runes which appear to be utter non ace, or filled with errors. Perhaps it do perfect sense to the craftsman who made the object. Or perhaps, realizing that the object he just made needed to decorated with runes, but not knowing the footwork, the artisan manifestly made up something rune-like. The medium of choice for runic inscriptions was probably a stick or scrap of wood, which explains why few runic inscriptions are found today.Extraordinary conditions re postulate for the preservation of these wood scraps over the centuries since the Norse era. The runic writing shown to the right is one of a number of wood en merchants markers excavated in Bergen. It indicates the owners name, and was meant to be stuck in or tied to a pile of merchandise. It can be difficult to transcribe and translate runic writings. One difficulty is that there are more sounds in the language than there are runes to represent them. Thus a single character could represent one of several sounds.Another difficulty is the variations in the respective(a) footwork alphabets that were in use ring the period. Further, archaic or otherwise unknown words were used in runic inscriptions. Runes were frequently incorporated into the isomorphic designs (left) successful by the Norse. Additionally, every effort was made to reduce the space required to inscribe the message and the number of runes that needed to be carved. So, for example, if a rune repeated, only the first rune was carved and the endorsement discarded. Generally, there were no breaks between words or between sentences. Runes could be written left to right or rig ht to left.The facing of the runes makes it clear which way to read. For inscriptions tenaciouser than one line, alternating lines were frequently written in opposite directions, first leftwards, then rightwards. Sometimes, the lines bent or so at the end, so that one line reads left to right and the next line right to left and round top down. The effect is shown with English school text using Roman letters to the right. Some rune stones (such as the Rk stone shown to the left) have text crammed onto every surface of the stone, with lines reading upwards, downwards, leftwards, and rightwards.Further, runes could be coded into other figures, called vatic runes. The liveliness is not always clear. Perhaps it was meant to highlight a plowshare of the text, or to show off the skill of the person carving the runes. And perhaps it was meant to fog the meaning of the text to those who did not now how the runes were encoded. One example of cryptic runes are skipsnear (ship runes), where the twigs adorn the stem and stern of the ship. The number of twigs in a figure indicated two numbers. The rune was coded by these two numbers.The first represented a particular TTT (grouping of runes within the footwork), and the second indicated which rune in the grouping was meant. Shown to he right are two figures from a serial of cryptic runes in an Icelandic manuscript. Portion of rune stone with several same-stave runes Same-stave rune with missing portion restored Same-stave rune separated into individual runes written text into Roman letters Another example of cryptic runes is same-stave runes, in which all of the twigs branch from a single stave.The composite image to the left shows an example of this kind of runic inscription. The left image shows a small portion Of the S&1105ender Kirby Stone in Denmark that uses same-stave runes for a portion of its message. The stave of arouse in this example is the second room the left. The stone was damaged in this region, a nd a portion of this stave is missing. This part of the stone is shown in the second image, with a speculative reconstruction of the missing portion. The individual runes are shown in the next column, and the transcription into the Roman alphabet in the final column.The have it off message is Orr vigil run, or Door hallow the runes. Another variance of cryptic runes is visible at the top of the Rk stone, above left. With the coming of Christianity, and its educated clergy reading and writing Latin, runes were displaced by the Roman alphabet (modified to it the needs of the various northern European languages), written with pen and ink on vellum. However, runes continued to be used for many centuries, since the materials for runic writing were always readily at hand everyone carried a knife, and a stick could be picked up from anywhere.The Viking-age people did not develop a written coating until the arrival of the church. In the Viking age, runes were used for short notes only. T he Viking culture was oral, and long whole kit and caboodle were remembered using metrical composition. Runes certainly could have been used for longer messages in the same way as Roman characters, but hey were not. Perhaps the Norse people saw no need to preserve long works in written form, even though everything was in place to do so. Only a single rune stone containing a eject poem survives, although many stones contain individual verses.In chapter 78 of Sells saga, regular asked her father gill to compose a memorial poem, telling him she would carve the verses into a rune stick (rises kefir). Whether that was common practice or not is conjectural. The Rk stone is an extraordinary rune stone over four meters high (13 feet) and is covered on all five sides with runic inscriptions. The front (and the beginning of the inscription) is shown to the left, and the reverse is shown in the photo above left. Many of the rune stones, specially later ones, are memorial stones, which co mmemorated the dead and may have served as declarations of inheritance.The purpose of the Rook stone is subject to debate, but may well be a memorial Stone, as well. Poetry Surviving poems show a wide range of topics and tones respectful and reverent boastful and exalted witty and humorous threatening and defiant vile and obscene. However, scurrilous or satirical poems were banned cause of the injury they caused to the subject and to his reputation. Poems, being a divine gift from ?in (the highest of the gods), were thought to have special superpower. Poems had the power to bestow honor on a worthy man and to contract honor from a wretch.A skillful poet could earn a valuable punish from a generous king, or save his head from an angry king, by creating a well placid poem. Poems praising a woman were banned, both because of the publicity and the possible effect it might have on her reputation, but also because of possible spell binding effects the poem might have. (Surviving lov e memos suggest the ban was regularly ignored. ) On hearing certain kinds of poetry (for exemplar, poetry implying that a man was womanish), a man was at liberty to kill the person reciting the poem. The proscribed types of poetry are expound in the medieval Icelandic lowbrow Gargs (K 238).Norse poetry does not have the regular rhythm and end-rhyme that one conventionally associates with poetry, but rather uses alliteration and irregular stress which falls on the most significant words in each line. Norse poetry can be divided into three classes, depending on form and content. Rune poems were ordinarily inscribed on monuments and serve to praise an individual. They are brief and usually have a simple meter and style. Decide poems describe the Norse gods and ancient Norse heroes and their exploits. Decide poetry also has comparatively simple meter and style.The stories are exciting, packed with action, and frequently contain valuable object lessons. Little can be said about the cultivation of decide poetry, but it was probably in place and in use at the start of the Viking age. upright poems typically praise the deeds of celebrated people, and they were usually written during the lifetime of the person being raised. While some of the surviving unspotted poetry fittings from the medieval period, many of the poems are believed to date from the Viking age. The Rk ironstone shown above on this page records one stanza of undefiled poetry and dates from the middle of the 9th century.The Israeli ironstone shown to the right is the only classic verse in the elaborate drytakeTTT meter known to have been written down in the Viking age. It dates from roughly the year 1 000 and is located in Land in Sweden. While the decide poetry is uniformly anonymous, such(prenominal) of the surviving classic poetry is credited to a particular lug at a particular place and time. The classic poems have alter meters, strict patterns of alliteration, and ornate metaphoric lang uage, with wordplay to delight the sophisticated listener. The poems usually celebrate the exploits of a particular king or leader.Since, in the Viking age, parody was considered to be mockery, and since mockery was considered a lethal insult, these poems are thought to be steady-going testimony to the events, even though (in some cases) they werent committed to writing for centuries subsequently their composition. Unfortunately, the factual information in such poetry tends to be limited. Classic poetry uses a variety of circumlocutions, such as kennings. A kenning uses a phrase as a metaphor to represent an idea. The usual form is a noun, qualified by another noun in the genitive case. For instance sweat of the sword is used to mean blood, or horse of the ocean to mean ship.Some of the kennings can only be understood by person with an extensive knowledge of the culture and of the great stories. For example, flame of the Rhine is used to mean metallic but would probably be unde rstood only by someone who is familiar with the Vlasagna saga in which the great specie treasure of the Vlulus NCAR ended up t the bottom of the river Rhine. Kenning can have multiple levels. For example, a poet might use a kenning for gold, and then use that phrase in place of the word gold in yet another kenning, such as flame of the sea- steads path.Sea-steads (ship) path is water, so flame of the water refers to gold. Some kennings depend on hyperbole. Enemy of gold refers to a man who does not like gold and gives it away a generous man. Some kennings take the form of puns, such as using sky of the eel to represent ice in identifying someone as an Icelandic. The form of Norse poetry is complicated beyond the wordplay of the innings. The need to fit strict decrees of alliteration and rhyming and rhythm result in verses in which multiple ideas are being formed simultaneously. (This concept is illustrated on the classic stanza page. Because Icelandic is a highly inflected languag e (word forms change depending on their usage in a sentence), its possible to jumble the word order yet retain the meaning of a sentence. Norse visual humanistic discipline share this property (left). Exceedingly complicated forms are used all over a figure to create a single co-ordinated image. Its been suggested that this similarity between poetry and visual arts derives from the name cardinal sensibility, some innate appreciation of the baroque form in Norse culture. Because of its complexity and wordplay, wonder whether classic poetry could be understood by a listener hearing a verse for the first time.There are examples in the stories that support this belief, such as chapter 18 fog(slab saga. Brids overheard a verse spoken by her brother, Gillis, in which he took credit for the cleansing of her husband, Programs. Not until she returned home did brd(s interpret the verse and under survive its meaning. I may be overstating my case. At least one scholar of classic otter has t old me that he believes the verses were easily understood by a listener in the saga age. Additionally, in an oral culture, it would be important to recall poetry without error.Because of the complexities of Norse verse, a defect in a recalled verse would be immediately apparent, since the rhyme, rhythm, or alliteration would no longer work. Any erroneous substitution would stand out. Thus, the complexity of the verse acted as a mnemonic aid to help recall the verse and to identify errors. This built-in error detection was one of the reasons that information conveyed by poetry during the Viking age as thought to be more reliable than information in prose. The 12th century authors who first wrote the histories and stories of Iceland viewed the words of poets to be more authoritative than other oral sources.Some modern scholars disagree, and they suggest that in oral form, even poetry is un promising to breathe unchanged over long periods of time. Literature Many of the important poems were quiet in the 9th through 12th century. These were part Of the oral customs, and were kept vital by repetition as they were passed from one generation to another. Poetry was likely a major form of entertainment for the Norse. Poets were held in high regard, not only for their ability to improvise poetic entertainment on the spot, but also because they were the repository of the shared cultural experience.They were the vessel through which the culture was passed from generation to generation. Once committed to poetry, a thought was expected to last as long as the land is inhabited or as long as the Norse language is spoken. Story-telling was a everyday entertainment wherever people gathered. FasterRA saga says in chapter 23 that origami Narrations told a story while sitting on his chair in front of his booth at the Ping. People sat all around him, listening to his tale. When an unexpected downpour forced everyone to leave and seek shelter, ridiculousr took advantage of the opportunity and killed Door(Mr..Beginning in the 12th century, educated men in Iceland, where the oral tradition was strongest, began to write down the important stories. Iceland Was whimsical among European countries at this time in having a population comprised of a large number of relatively free, land- owning farmers. These men had the means to commission the creation of books in their own language, rather than in Latin as was the rule throughout he rest of Europe. The oral story-telling tradition of the Islanders also upgrade writings in the vernacular.A wide variety of material was written down in the Icelandic language. One of the first books to be written in the northern lands was the Icelandic law codes, begun in the year 11 17. precedent to this time, the law codes were remembered and recited orally by the law speaker (logsGuamour) at the Piping. A short time later, a annals of Iceland was written known as slanderingk (the Book of Islanders) by Air FRRI (the learned) around the year 1 130. Scholars wrote books describing how to use Roman letters to represent the sounds of the Icelandic language.The start Grammatical Treatise was followed by three others. The genealogy and history of Icelandic settlers were written down in LandMBAk (the Book of Settlement)s. European literature was translated into Icelandic, including stories of the lives of saints, and learned books on topics including astronomy, natural history, and geography. Travel books were written by Icelandic visitors to Europe. New stories were written to commemorate the exploits of kings or other great leaders. Some of these books were in the form f histories, such as Homemakings, a history of the kings of Norway.Others described contemporary events, such as the sagas of the lives of Icelandic bishops, untangling saga, a compilation of sagas describing the events in the turbulent times when the sons of Stuart brarson were changing the political landscape Of the Iceland. Islanders also wrote down the stories of their ancestors. These sleddingguru (Sagas of Islanders, also called family sagas) expect compelling and entertaining reading today. They are a unique and fresh form of story-telling unlike anything that preceded them. Most of these sagas are thought to have been composed between 1200 and 1400.These stories tell of the tales of farmers and chieftains living in Iceland from the 9th through the 12th century. Many of them follow families for generation after generation, from the settlement era to the commonwealth period in Icelands history. They are distinctive in that they tell heroic tales not about heroes, but about just plain folks the early Islanders. Although distorted by the time that separates the events depicted and the writing of the stories, the family sagas present one of the best pictures we have of Norse society. We know the names of only a very few of the writers of these works.It was not customary to put the authors name on the manuscript. How ever, one author who can be identified with some inference is Snorer Sturgeon (1 179-1241). A 20th century sculpture of Snorer by Vigilant is shown to the left. Snorer feared that the tradition of composing poetry to commemorate great men and great events was dying. For this, and other reasons, he wrote the Sonora dead, a four part textbook on writing classic poetry. The book summarizes Norse mythology (necessary for the poet to understand the innings), teaches the language of poetry, and presents examples of the various verse forms.

Tuesday, January 15, 2019

Death Camp

It all began when a group of old friends determined they wanted to go encampmenting for the weekend. All they wanted was to have a laugh, get drunk and have good know memories of their time in concert before they went to university in different parts of the country. Camping seemed corresponding a perfect way to say goodbye, or so they thought. Sitting approximately a warm camp finish, toasting marshmellows and sharing memories, they would remember the good clock and leave on a good note, the troubles of the past forgotten. bullshit and microphone decided to organise a weekend in the New woodwind and collected a i??30 contribution from their friends to pay for food, drink, force break through and the hire of a minibus. So it was that, one crisp morning in late August, the group of friends met at The Three Compasses in Luton and set glowering, talk of the town and laughing, for their perfect weekend away. The journey took a few hours due to the deal of traffic on the roads and by the time they reached base camp they were hot, tired and irritable.Determined not to let the weekend get cancelled to a bad start, Jack suggested that they set up camp in the woods then go their separate ways before the barbeque later in the evening. Jack led the group from the carpark to a elucidation about half a mile into the dense trees and they began to set up the large ten-man tents. After agreeing to meet back at seven, they split into twos and threes and went off to explore the forest. Everyone was back by half past and got a invoke going, crackling merrily as they toasted marshmellows.As the drink was brought out the talking and laughing grew louder and more raucous until most were either at rest(prenominal) or dancing outrageously to Mikes CD collection. The fire flickered, its embers glowing and cinders spread about the clearing. The deep shadows between the trees were broken by its golden get by and different hues of yellow danced across the canvas tents. A wonderful olfaction of sweet pinewood burning filled the clearing, mingling with the pungent perfume of ill-judged grasses and flowers. The stars overhead were glittering corresponding diamonds in the velvety night sky.Jack was dancing near to the fire but he was one of the last ones, everyone else had gone into the tents to sleep off the vodka and beer. As his friends decided that they too were instal for bed, Jack went to put out the fire with a bottle of water. In his disorientated state he accidentally picked up a half-drunk bottle of vodka and threw its circumscribe onto the fire. There was a roar and the flames sprang up, licking the night air uniform a predator hungry for prey. Tongues of flame caught low-hanging branches and they were swallowed up, the pine resin spew and jumping.Jerked out of his drunkeness, Jack ran to the tents and shouted for everyone to get out and follow him. The ones who listened ran outside, pull their semi-conscious friends with them. Crashi ng through the dense undergrowth they headed in the direction of the minibus and clambered aboard. Mike, who had stayed sober exuberant to drive, sprang into the drivers seat and they sped off down the road. At a nearby laybay they halt and called the fire brigade from a phonebox. It was only then that they realised some(prenominal) of their friends behind at the mercy of the raging flames.The forest was alight, the trees catching like dry tinder and pillars of orange flame rocketing into the night sky, the pines burning like torches. The people left behind ran drunkenly away from the flames but the fire was spreading at an incredible rate, springing from tree to tree like rampaging tigers. have filled the forest and they choked as they ran, stumbling and falling. Overcome by fatigue and lack of oxygen, they sank down in a clearing by a road, hoping the fire could be stopped before it was too late

Monday, January 14, 2019

Part One (Olden Days)

Trespassers12.43 As against trespassers (who, in principle, must take new(prenominal) peoples premises and their occupiers as they find them) Charles Arnold-BakerLocal Council Administration,Seventh EditionIPagford Parish Council was, for its size, an impressive force. It met once a month in a fine Victorian church building h every, and attempts to cut its budget, annex every of its powers or blow it into some newfangled unitary authority had been strenuously and successfully resisted for decades. Of every(prenominal) the topical anesthetic councils under the higher(prenominal) authority of Yarvil district Council, Pagford prided itself on cosmos the most obstreperous, the most vocal and the most independent.Until Sunday evening, it had comprised sixteen topical anaesthetic men and women. As the townships electorate tended to assume that a wish to serve on the Parish Council implied competence to do so, all sixteen councillors had gained their seats unopposed.Yet this amicab ly appointed body was currently in a state of civic war. An issue that had been causing fury and resentment in Pagford for sixty-odd eld had reached a definitive phase, and factions had rallied behind two charismatic leaders.To grasp fully the motility of the dis roame it was necessary to comprehend the precise depth of Pagfords dis want and surmise of the city of Yarvil, which fructify to its north.Yarvils shops, businesses, factories, and the S step to the foreh West General Hospital, provided the bulk of the enjoyment in Pagford. The small towns youths generally spent their Saturday nights in Yarvils cinemas and nightclubs. The city had a cathedral, several parks and two enormous shopping centres, and these things were pleasant generous to visit if you had sated yourself on Pagfords superior charms. Even so, to true Pagfordians, Yarvil was little to a greater extent than a necessary evil. Their attitude was symbolized by the high hill, topped by Pargetter Abbey, which block ed Yarvil from Pagfords sight, and allowed the townspeople the happy illusion that the city was piecey miles win away than it truly was.IIIt so happened that Pargetter Hill also obscured from the towns clear an early(a) beam, but one that Pagford had always considered particularly its own. This was Sweetlove Ho drill, an exquisite, honey-coloured Queen Anne domainor, delimit in com identifyy acres of park and farmland. It lay at bottom Pagford Parish, halfway between the town and Yarvil.For nearly two hundred old age the dramaturgy had passed smoothly from generation to generation of aristocratic Sweetloves, until at last, in the early 1900s, the family had died out. all told that remained these days of the Sweetloves long association with Pagford, was the grandest tomb in the churchyard of St Michael and every(prenominal) Saints, and a smattering of crests and initials over local anaesthetic anesthetic records and buildings, like the footprints and coprolites of exti nct creatures. by and by the death of the last of the Sweetloves, the manor house had changed detention with alarming rapidity. thither were constant fears in Pagford that some developer would buy and mutilate the beloved landmark. Then, in the 1950s, a man called Aubrey Fawley purchased the place. Fawley was in design known to be possessed of full-blooded private wealth, which he supplemented in mysterious ways in the City. He had four children, and a desire to settle permanently. Pagfords approval was raised to neverthe little giddier heights by the swiftly circulated intelligence that Fawley was descended, by dint of a confirming line, from the Sweetloves. He was clearly half a local already, a man whose natural allegiance would be to Pagford and not to Yarvil. Old Pagford believed that the advent of Aubrey Fawley meant the contain of a charmed era. He would be a fairy godfather to the town, like his ancestors before him, showering grace and glamour over their cobbled stre ets.Howard Mollison could still remember his drive bursting into their petty kitchen in fancy Street with the news that Aubrey had been invited to judge the local flower show. Her runner beans had taken the vegetable prize three years in a row, and she yearned to accept the silver-plated rose bowl from a man who was already, to her, a figure of old-world romance.IIIBut then, so local legend told, came the sudden darkness that attends the appearance of the wicked fairy.Even as Pagford was rejoicing that Sweetlove House had fallen into such safe hands, Yarvil was busily constructing a swath of council houses to its south. The new streets, Pagford learned with unease, were consuming some of the land that lay between the city and the town.Everybody knew that in that respect had been an increasing demand for cheap lodging since the war, but the little town, momentarily distracted by Aubrey Fawleys arrival, began to buzz with misgiving of Yarvils intentions. The natural barriers of r iver and hill that had once been guarantors of Pagfords sovereignty seemed diminished by the locomote with which the red-brick houses multiplied. Yarvil filled every inch of the land at its disposal, and throw in at the northern bank of Pagford Parish.The town sighed with a relief that was soon revealed to be premature. The Cantermill Estate was immediately judged insufficient to meet the populations needs, and the city draw up about for to a greater extent land to colonize.It was then that Aubrey Fawley (still more myth than man to the people of Pagford) made the decision that triggered a festering sixty-year grudge.Having no use for the few scrubby corrections that lay beyond the new development, he sold the land to Yarvil Council for a good price, and used the cash to collapse-to doe with the warped panelling in the third house of Sweetlove House.Pagfords fury was unconfined. The Sweetlove fields had been an primary(prenominal) part of its buttress against the encroachin g city now the ancient border of the parish was to be com forestalld by an overspill of needy Yarvilians. Rowdy town hall meetings, seething letters to the newspaper and Yarvil Council, personal remonstrance with those in bestir nothing succeeded in reversing the tide.The council houses began to advance again, but with one difference. In the brief hiatus following completion of the front estate, the council had realized that it could build more cheaply. The fresh eruption was not of red brick but of concrete in steel frames. This second estate was known locally as the field, later the land on which it had been built, and was marked as distinct from the Cantermill Estate by its inferior materials and design.It was in one of the field concrete and steel houses, already shift and warping by the late 1960s, that Barry Fairbrother was born.IVIn spite of Yarvil Councils savorless assurances that maintenance of the new estate would be its own responsibility, Pagford as the madd ened townsfolk had predicted from the first was soon landed with new bills. While the cookery of most services to the field, and the upkeep of its houses, fell to Yarvil Council, there remained matters that the city, in its august way, delegated to the parish the maintenance of worldly concern footpaths, of lighting and public seating, of bus shelters and common land. graffiti blossomed on the bridges spanning the Pagford to Yarvil road Fields bus shelters were vandalized Fields teenagers strewed the tackle park with beer bottles and threw rocks at the street lamps. A local footpath, very overmuch favoured by tourists and ramblers, became a popular spot for Fields youths to congregate, and worse, as Howard Mollisons beat put it darkly. It fell to Pagford Parish Council to clean, to repair and to replace, and the funds dispersed by Yarvil were felt from the first to be inadequate for the time and expense required.No part of Pagfords friendless burden caused more fury or bi tterness than the fact that Fields children now fell inside the catchment area of St Thomass Church of England Primary School. new-fangled Fielders had the right to don the coveted blue and white uniform, to play in the yard beside the foundation stone laid by Lady Char voltaic pilete Sweetlove and to deafen the tiny classrooms with their strident Yarvil accents.It swiftly became common lore in Pagford that houses in the Fields had perish the prize and goal of every benefit-supported Yarvil family with school-age children that there was a great ongoing scramble across the bourne line from the Cantermill Estate, much as Mexicans streamed into Texas. Their beautiful St Thomass a magnet for professional commuters to Yarvil, who were attracted by the tiny classes, the rolltop desks, the aged stone building and the lush green playing field would be overrun and swamped by the offspring of scroungers, addicts and mothers whose children had all been fathered by distinct men.This nightmarish scenario had never been fully realized, because while there were undoubtedly advantages to St Thomass there were also draw tolerates the need to buy the uniform, or else to fill in all the forms required to qualify for assistance for the same the necessity of attaining bus passes, and of acquire up earlier to ensure that the children arrived at school on time. just about households in the Fields found these onerous obstacles, and their children were absorbed instead by the large plain-clothes primary school that had been built to serve the Cantermill Estate. Most of the Fields pupils who came to St Thomass blended in well with their peers in Pagford some, indeed, were admitted to be perfectly straight-laced children. Thus Barry Fairbrother had ranged up through the school, a popular and minded(p) class clown, only occasionally noticing that the smile of a Pagford parent stiffened when he mentioned the place where he lived.Nevertheless, St Thomass was sometimes force d to take in a Fields pupil of undeniably disruptive nature. Krystal Weedon had been living with her great-grandmother in Hope Street when the time came for her to start school, so that there was really no way of stopping her coming, even though, when she moved back to the Fields with her mother at the age of eight, there were high hopes locally that she would leave St Thomass for good.Krystals dumb passage up the school had resembled the passage of a goat through the body of a boa constrictor, being highly visible and disquieting for both parties concerned. Not that Krystal was always in class for much of her move at St Thomass she had been taught one-on-one by a special teacher.By a malign stroke of fate, Krystal had been in the same class as Howard and Shirleys eldest granddaughter, Lexie. Krystal had once hit Lexie Mollison so hard in the face that she had knocked out two of her teeth. That they had already been wobbly was not felt, by Lexies parents and grandparents, to be much of an extenuation.It was the conviction that whole classes of Krystals would be waiting for their daughters at Winterdown Comprehensive that finally decided Miles and Samantha Mollison on removing both their daughters to St Annes, the private girls school in Yarvil, where they had become weekly boarders. The fact that his granddaughters had been driven out of their rightful places by Krystal Weedon, swiftly became one of Howards favourite conversational examples of the estates nefarious influence on Pagford life.VThe first effusion of Pagfords outrage had annealed into a quieter, but no less powerful, sense of grievance. The Fields polluted and corrupted a place of placidity and beauty, and the smouldering townsfolk remained determined to cut the estate adrift. Yet boundary reviews had come and gone, and reforms in local government had swept the area without effecting any change the Fields remained part of Pagford. Newcomers to the town learned quickly that abuse of the estat e was a necessary passport to the goodwill of that hard onus of Pagfordians who ran everything.But now, at long last over sixty years afterwards Old Aubrey Fawley had handed Yarvil that fatal parcel of land after decades of patient work, of strategizing and petitioning, of collating information and haranguing sub-committees the anti-Fielders of Pagford found themselves, at last, on the trembling scepter of victory.The recession was forcing local authorities to streamline, cut and reorganize. There were those on the higher body of Yarvil District Council who foresaw an advantage to their electoral fortunes if the crumbling little estate, likely to cause poorly under the austerity measures imposed by the interior(a) government, were to be scooped up, and its disgruntled inhabitants joined to their own voters.Pagford had its own representative in Yarvil District Councillor Aubrey Fawley. This was not the man who had enabled the construction of the Fields, but his son, You ng Aubrey, who had familial Sweetlove House and who worked through the week as a merchant banker in London. There was a whiff of penance in Aubreys involvement in local affairs, a sense that he ought to make right the upon that his father had so carelessly done to the little town. He and his wife Julia donated and gave out prizes at the agricultural show, sat on any sub ascribable of local committees, and threw an annual Christmas party to which invitations were much coveted.It was Howards pride and delight to envisage that he and Aubrey were such close allies in the continuing ask to reassign the Fields to Yarvil, because Aubrey moved in a higher demesne of commerce that commanded Howards fascinated respect. Every evening, after the delicatessen closed, Howard removed the tray of his demode till, and counted up coins and dirty notes before placing them in a safe. Aubrey, on the other hand, never touched money during his office hours, and yet he caused it to move in unimagina ble quantities across continents. He managed it and multiplied it and, when the portents were less propitious, he watched magisterially as it vanished. To Howard, Aubrey had a mystique that not even a oecumenic financial crash could dent the delicatessen-owner was impatient of anyone who blamed the likes of Aubrey for the mess in which the country found itself. Nobody had complained when things were going well, was Howards oft-repeated view, and he accorded Aubrey the respect due to a general injured in an unpopular war.Meanwhile, as a district councillor, Aubrey was privy to all kinds of interesting statistics, and in a position to share a good deal of information with Howard about Pagfords hard orbiter. The two men knew exactly how much of the districts resources were poured, without return or obvious improvement, into the Fields dilapidated streets that nobody owned their own house in the Fields (whereas the red-brick houses of the Cantermill Estate were almost all in private hands these days they had been prettified almost beyond recognition, with window-boxes and porches and neat front lawns) that nearly two-thirds of Fields-dwellers lived unaccompanied off the state and that a sizeable proportion passed through the doors of the Bellchapel dependence Clinic.VIHoward carried the mental image of the Fields with him always, like a stock of a nightmare boarded windows daubed with obscenities smoking teenagers loitering in the perennially defaced bus shelters satellite dishes everywhere, turned to the skies like the denuded ovules of grim metal flowers. He ofttimes asked rhetorically why they could not have organized and made the place over what was stopping the residents from pooling their meagre resources and buying a lawnmower between the lot of them? But it never happened the Fields waited for the councils, District and Parish, to clean, to repair, to maintain to strain and give and give again.Howard would then recall the Hope Street of his boyho od, with its tiny back gardens, each hardly more than tablecloth-sized squares of earth, but most, including his mothers, bristling with runner beans and potatoes. There was nothing, as far as Howard could see, to stop the Fielders growing fresh vegetables nothing to stop them disciplining their sinister, hooded, spray-painting offspring nothing to stop them pulling themselves together as a community and tackling the dirt and the shabbiness nothing to stop them cleaning themselves up and taking jobs nothing at all. So Howard was forced to draw the oddment that they were choosing, of their own free will, to live the way they lived, and that the estates air of slightly sonorous degradation was nothing more than a physical manifestation of ignorance and indolence.Pagford, by contrast, shone with a kind of moral radiance in Howards mind, as though the collective soul of the community was made manifest in its cobbled streets, its hills, its graceful houses. To Howard, his birthplace w as much more than a collection of old buildings, and a fast-flowing, tree-fringed river, the majestic silhouette of the abbey above or the hanging baskets in the Square. For him, the town was an ideal, a way of being a micro-civilization that stood firmly against a national decline.Im a Pagford man, he would tell summertime tourists, born and bred. In so saying, he was giving himself a profound compliment disguised as a commonplace. He had been born in Pagford and he would die there, and he had never dreamed of leaving, nor itched for more change of scene than could be had from reflexion the seasons transform the surrounding woods and river from watching the Square blossom in spring or sparkle at Christmas.Barry Fairbrother had known all this indeed, he had said it. He had laughed right across the table in the church hall, laughed right in Howards face. You know, Howard, you are Pagford to me. And Howard, not discomposed in the slightest (for he had always met Barry joke for joke), had said, Ill take that as a great compliment, Barry, and it was intended.He could afford to laugh. The one remaining ambition of Howards life was within touching distance the return of the Fields to Yarvil seemed imminent and certain.Then, two days before Barry Fairbrother had dropped dead in a car park, Howard had learned from an unexceptionable source that his opponent had broken all known rules of engagement, and had gone to the local paper with a story about the blessing it had been for Krystal Weedon to be improve at St Thomass.The idea of Krystal Weedon being paraded in front of the reading public as an example of the successful integration of the Fields and Pagford might (so Howard said) have been funny, had it not been so serious. Doubtless Fairbrother would have coached the girl, and the truth about her muddied mouth, the endlessly interrupted classes, the other children in tears, the constant removals and reintegrations, would be missed in lies.Howard trusted the go od sense of his fellow townsfolk, but he feared journalistic spin and the interference of ignorant do-gooders. His objection was both scrupulous and personal he had not yet forgotten how his granddaughter had sobbed in his arms, with bloody sockets where her teeth had been, while he tried to soothe her with a promise of triple prizes from the tooth fairy.