Thursday, February 28, 2019

Automobile Safety Essay

Intro Automobiles You just gull to bring on one in this fast paced world In the United States, or maybe just in a popular city such as Los Angeles or New York, automobiles atomic number 18 necessary. People need to give the axe from point A to point B. These points croupe be as termination as a few hundred feet or even prototype up to a few hundred burls When making these trips galosh device is a priority. There are hundreds of thousands of automobiles on the passs across the nation and if safety was not considered, thousand would be injured or even killed everydayAutomobile safety has come a grand way oer the years and as every day goes by more and more late shipway are created to keep drivers, and their passengers, safe on the road. dissertation Since the automobile was primary created, more and more safety precautions have been interpreted to murder an automobile ride as safe as possible. I volition provide information on how to keep you and your railway car u p to date with some precautions to ensure safety on the road. Preview.We will experience with examples and tips on how to choose the safest automobile on the road, because we will fount at precautions automobile companies are taking to keep you safe, and finally we will see some issues that are still to be taken awe of as the automobile industry soars. Point 1 There are many polar automobile companies providing buyers with many styles of cars, trucks, SUVs, and motorcycles. Toronto Star January 14, 2005 present ways to approach the self-propelled buying process.There are many different surveys, crash reports, and rating systems comparing different companies and their fomites. Things you should reflection for when reading these create articles are who conducted the study? Who paid for it? Who gains from it? Who loses? These are all things to keep midpoint on as some automotive companies will run their sustain surveys making their overlaps seem overpowering against the com petition. some prove their products are safer then the competition where the competition has been proven time and time again to bring on that survey seem inaccurate.The consumer is the biggest target for these falsifying surveys. The act of choosing the right size, shape, and colourize all have their own place in the process, exclusively choosing the make of the automotive is the real hurdle some people get stuck on. artless Living November 2005 presents to the consumer what new options are available on GM automobiles and trucks. They advance that, Only GM is committed to offering a full get down of cars, trucks, and SUVs that offer GM continuous safety protection before, during, and thanks to On-Star technology, by and by vehicle collisions. This is a prime example of how vehicle manufacturers sell their product to the consumer before the consumer grades foot into a dealership. The consumer, relying on this ad, will step foot, in this case, in a GM dealership and then fin alise what vehicle to chose depending on the models they offer. The consumer has now disregarded all other vehicle manufacturers just by relying on an ad. Al intimately all vehicle manufacturers have their own way of selling to consumers before consumers even see the atmosphere of vehicles they offer.Catchy slogans and ads are things all manufacturers use to gain their consumers attention. Transition from 1 to 2 at one time that we saw what vehicle manufacturers are doing to get your attention, permits look at the statistics on which manufacturer actually provides you with the safety that they claim. Point 2 Newswire US February 9, 2006 states blue-chip information about automotive safety. Frost & Sullivans recent analysis of active and passive safety systems in the US and consumers desirability and willingness to pay for such systems recognized Volvo as the recipient role of the 2005 U.S. Consumer Choice of the Year Award for Brand Offering the best general Automotive sentr y go. This particular survey was conducted using over 1,000 U. S. consumers. What this survey tells the consumer is valuable in making a decision. By stating that Volvo has received this award doesnt mean other manufacturers vehicles are unsafe. This survey further states that you get the safety you pay for with Volvo vehicles and as well as that Volvo customers are satisfied with their vehicles. unity of the things that sufficeed Volvo achieve this award is that they provide standard three-point safety belts, which is one of the industries most cost effective vehicular safety features. Volvo was also one of the first brands to adopt padded dashboards, ergonomic seats, disk brakes, crumple zones, split command columns, integrated child booster cushions, and side production linebags. Recent additions to Volvos signature safety features are whiplash protection seating systems, rollover protection system, roll perceptual constancy control, and their intelligent vehicle architectu re.Volvo has been around for over 75 years and they been astounding their customers with better and stylish vehicles every time they renew or antecede a new model. Transition from 2 to 3 Now that we seen how publicizing and research studies on safety can help the consumer make their decision, let us look at some issues vehicle manufacturers have and what precautions can be taken to avoid danger on the road. Point 3 Tires. No upshot what vehicle manufacturer you chose, there is always the caution of getting a flat frighten away or even having a become flat flip ones lid while the vehicle is in motion.Tire manufacturers fig all kinds of tires such as Run-Flats, which are basically thicker tires with insulation that result the vehicle to be driven even though the tire is flat. alone like vehicle manufacturers, there are many different tire manufacturers. This is where the safety issue comes in. Tires can reach high temperatures while in motion. As the tire is turning even a small th chthonian can cause it to explode. Keep in mind that the tire has air in it. The faster the tire rotates the more compel it has being exerted outer from the center of the rim.To think a little hair pin or paperclip can have no affect on a tire as it is still, this is not the case as the tires are under higher squash and are prone to damage or explode when any sharp or pointy object is present to the tire. Fleet owner February 1st, 2006 present an article to the consumer about Automatic tire inflation systems. Some newer vehicles, such as the Cadillac Escalade, offer this new mechanism. There is an automatic pressure gauge in each tire.When the tire is deflated past the tokenish psi needed for the tire to operate properly, an on-board air compressor is triggered to bring the pressure inside the tire to proper level. This new mechanism can help reduce tire damage due to driving with deflated tires, which also results in the tire exploding, but you must still be guarded yourself as there might be many objects on the road that can still cause damage to any tire. Restated Thesis Now you have better knowledge on Vehicle and road safety. compendiumWe began looking at what consumers should look for in a vehicle when purchasing it in regards to safety and advertising flaws. Then we moved on to the statistics that be Volvo to be the safest automobile manufacturer of 2005. And finally we were informed about conditions that automotive manufacturers have no control over by using the tire pressure and road conditions as examples. Conclusion Safety is the number on thing automobile manufacturers have in mind no national what type of vehicle they design.Different manufacturers have different safety standards, but there is one overall manufacturer that is awarded with the safest line of cars award. In 2005 it was Volvo. The Volvo automotive group has succeeded in meeting their safety goals. But at the aforementioned(prenominal) time there are other conditi ons that still lie amongst point A and point B. As safe as your car can be, always take caution when driving no matter where u may be. Keep your eyes on the road and be safe everyone. Works Cited Vehicle safety has come a long way over the years, The Toronto Star, 14 January 2006, Pg G06. Road to progress paved with potholes, regular army Today, 15 November 2005, Pg 3B. Volvo Cars receives Frost & Sullivans U. S. Consumer Choice Award Volvo Brand Named Best Overall Automotive Safety, PR Newswire US, 9 February 2006. More complex cars and more stricter rules lead to more recalls, The New York Times, 26 October, 2005, Pg. 32. Road transport Safety remains a major problem, European Report, 18 February, 2006, Pg. 323. Whats new in Tire Inflation, Fleet Owner, 1 February, 2006 Going the extra mile your guide to continuous automotive safety, Country Living, November 2005, Pg. 96A.

The Russian Revolution

a) From source A I provoke learn that the czar was incompetent and disorganised, as source A states Nicholas II was very poorly prepared for the responsibilities of being the tsar.. I can also learn that delinquent to the Tsars ignorance of politics and the people of Russia, he couldnt make the honorable decisions to help the country. reservoir A suggests that Tsar Nicholas II wasnt very fashionable, due to the fact he didnt know how to run the country or help the people in need of financial and medical support (the lower classes and peasants). I can also suggest from outset A that the whole country was in disarray, that no-one was equal because Tsar Nicholas II didnt know how to run the country or make the desperately needed decisions that would benefit the country as a whole.b) Source C and A support severally former(a) because twain state that Tsar Nicholas II was unfit to reign Russia. They say that he was unwitting of the necessary knowledge required to recover the country, this ignorance was the key motive for his downfall. However they both differ slightly. Source C says that the fact Tsar Nicholas II was useless as a ruler was not his break he was apparently intelligent, faithful and courageous scarcely was wholly ignorant of government nationals. The source was taken out of the Tsars sisters diary, so she, no matter how bad things got with the Tsar, would still stick up for him. Whereas Source A is taken from a textbook written about Russia, therefore they need not show any compassion for the Tsar so they can bring through just the facts.Source C and B support each other because in source C the Tsars sister says that the Tsar was still popular in the years before 1914 and in source B it shows a photograph of Tsar Nicholas II with is many supporters celebrating the 300 years of rule of the Romanov family, showing that he still had support when the picture was taken in 1913. Source C and B differ from each other because in Source C, th e Tsars sister says that Nicholas wasnt a good ruler of Russia, and that he was skilful as a soldier not as a statesman. barely in Source B, he is shown ring by his many supporters substantial him and his whole family. Surely if they didnt like him then they wouldnt be happy he was in power, (however, there are probably only the upper classes tough in the celebration as the Tsar hasnt done anything to anger them whereas he didnt treat the lower classes well at all.)Overall I depend that that Source A and C support each other the closely as both say that the Tsar was incompetent as a ruler of Russia, and differ from each other only very slightly. further more(prenominal) I think that Source B and C differ from each other the most because in Source C the Tsars sister says that he wasnt a very good ruler and in Source B he is being shown as a great ruler surrounded by his cheering supporters.c) I can learn from source D that the way Tsar dealed with those who opposed his way of ruling the country was with madness and death. As Source D shows strikers killed by the police. This Source is reliable because it is a photograph, and you can see the workers dead on the ground and police members stand up round them. It could be a hoax, with people pretending to be dead, but is highly unlikely to be one.I can learn from Source E that the people felt that the government was not making the right choices, and that they were being forced into forming revolutionary groups by the government. This sources reliability could be questioned as it was written by a party opposing the Tsar as a speech, so the aim of the speech was to turn people against the up-to-date Tsarist government and to support theirs. Also, as it was written as a speech its meant to persuade and motivate the listeners, so some aspects of it may attain been exaggerated.Overall, I think that Source E is more useful in telling us how discontented the people were with the Tsarist government, as its more detailed in its explanation and shows human emotion on the situation. However, I believe that Source D is the more reliable of the two as, because its a photo, we can be sure the events captured on film actually happened.

Wednesday, February 27, 2019

Chapter two †Mississippi schools Essay

The follo get ong books focuses on how schools in the disseminated sclerosis School district and nationwide atomic number 18 implementing school improvement plans and apogee the achievement gap. In School Improvement and Closing the transaction prisonbreak Report 2003-2004 the accountability of Mississippi Schools past and present is discussed (2004) and Craig Jerald, author of Dispelling the myth discusses how nationwide juicy poverty, high minority schools have high achieving students (2001). twain reports forget be discussed here. The exploreer wanted to know how many high-poverty and high minority schools nationwide have high student performance.The study apply the gentility Trust Database to identify certain criteria. Over 4500 schools were analyzed. Each merging the criteria set and performing well above the expectation (2001). Both paper discuss the achievement gap, more importantly they reported the areas of grea running improvement. The Achievement crevice Report (2004) focused on the Mississippi school districts. It gave an accountability report on those school districts that have been struggling, as well as providing a strategic outline to close the gap. Specific schools were used as models of for ameliorate test scores.Dispelling the story (Jerald, 2001) focused on school districts nation wide. Although no reasons for poor school performance were given, the author did state that none of the schools were magnet schools. This report showed that nearly schools with high poverty, high minority students represent in urban areas (2001). However, the more recently published Achievement Gap Report (2004) reported that some of the poorest schools are in rural areas. Dispelling the Myth (2001) looked at specific criteria for the study, whereas, the Achievement Gap Report (2004) did not.Both studies failed to look at specific schools and detail specific strategies used in improving the achievement gap. The Mississippi Achievement Gap Rep ort (2004) plan make suggestions on how schools can improve, but a greater detail is anticipate to truly understand what each school did to improve scores. Model schools or a model computer courseme can be established put on greater research. Socioeconomic Influence Literature regarding leaseing weapons platforms was of most interest for this study. Several scientific journals addressed factors of low socioeconomic office and under achievement.The achievement gap be amongst low-income students was addressed in Education The State Were In (Donahue & Griggs, 2003). Substantial culture was given on the obstacles facing high-poverty youth today. Reading proficiency among elementary school students of low-income families are at a disadvantage (2003). When studying low-income fourth graders, the author found that in 2003, across the nation, only fifteen percent are respectable in recital. The authors also demonstrated that the majority of low-income students read slightly tr ey grades behind non-poor students (2003).Proficiency differences among races were picturely discussed Similar disparities exist between discolor students and students of color 39% of white 4th graders can read at the proficient level compared to only 12 % of African-American students and 14% of Latinos. Overall, about leash in ten fourth graders can read proficiently, and this in itself is cause for concern. (2003) enate Involvement, Instructional Expenditures, Family Socioeconomic Attributes, and Student Achievement (Okpala, et al, 2001).Parental involvement is a commonly discussed approach to establishing higher student achievement. A study done in North Carolina was based on three factors (a) Instructional supplies expenditures will affect academic achievement positively (b) the SES of students in a given school, measured by the percentage of students that participate in free/reduced-price lunch political platforms, will affect student achievement negatively and (c) parenta l involvement that is measured by parental volunteer hours per ascorbic acid students will influence student achievement positively.These factors were beneficial in judgment the SES influence on successful nurture course of studys. These factors and the results of this particular study will be investigated further throughout this study. Implementing Change A very brief but informative piece, Evidence from Project Star About fork Size and Student Achievement (Folgers & Breda, 1989) addressed three specific questions to ask oneself when considering changing programs. The three questions were 1) How effective will the change be? 2) How frequently will it cost and 3) what are the problems of implementation?(1989) All three of these questions were found to be valuable when assessing existing programs, as well as when considering the indispensable factors when looking to improve upon them. The Gallup Poll (1989 Survey) was reported to have an overwhelming approval from parents when asked about reducing yr size. The problem with this strategy is that reducing class size substantially is very costly (1989). A widely researched program investigated during this study was the Accelerated Reader Program. One report (Melton, et. al. , 2004) demonstrated the uses and results of the AR program.By definition the Accelerated Readers program is a learning information system designed to heighten student interest in literature and to help teacher manage literature-based reading (McKnight, 1992). This study was particularly operative because it was conducted in two Jackson, Mississippi elementary schools. There has been extensive coverage of the AR program. A 2004 study compared the reading achievement growth of one-fifth graders following a year of participation in the AR program with other fifth graders who did not participate.The results demonstrated that students in the AR program actually scored significantly set down than non-participants. Although many studies s how little to no benefits from the AR program, the program has provided a few guidelines such guidelines include, 1) Engage students in large amount of reading practice with authentic material 2) students should read at their own individual reading level, and 3) student incentives such as ribbons or extra recess improves the odds of a students success.By using computer technology, teachers can use the AR program to assess students reading level and invite and motivate students to read material they find interest (Vollands, et al. , 1999). Students are given a choice of books suited to their particular reading level. Random multiple choice tests are given to test students information of the material. In a field Institute of Child Health and gracious Development (Dept. of Education) evaluation, AR programs and other computerized reading programs were reviewed (Chenowith, 2001).The lack of research on evaluated programs ability to produce long-term gains in reading achievement cau sed the National Institute to determine the AR programs did not meet standards (2001). Common complaints of the AR program include, 1) when the program ended, participating students went back to reading less than beforehand participating 2) the AR program limited the choice of books available to a student because certain books that were not accompanied by an AR test were not valid (Chenowith, 2001) and 3) AR encourages children to read for the wrong reasons, for example to win a prize (Carter, 1996).However, as Chenowith (2001) noted, many parents responded to the latter, that it did not matter why students read, as long as they were in fact reading. Topping and capital of Minnesota (1999) found that with the proper educator training on the AR program, the odds of successful student achievement with the program will improve. Students already in at risk in reading before the AR program will gain positive results when AR is implemented (Vollands, Topping and Evans, 1999). many anothe r(prenominal) elementary schools have adopted programs which encourage authentic reading cadence and aid in the development of reading skills for life (Melton, et al. , 2004). However, little research has been conducted on individual, less costly programs (2004). When studying the effects of the AR program on African American students and white students in Mississippi, black students scored lower (2004).

Australian education trends Essay

It is often known that information forms the backbone of sparing festering and suppuration in any nation. The investment in pre-school, primary winding and secondary facts of life as hearty as community college re proceedsion ensures availability of human capital endowed with relevant skills and acquaintance for compound productivity. This has proven to be a necessity for sustained economic development in any country in the world. Educated citizenry atomic number 18 in no doubt different from the unenlightened or less(prenominal) educated in a variety ways (Tiffen, & Gittins, 2004).At the outset, the passing is eminent in attitudes and behavior, in their advantageously world and health status, income as well as values regarding morals, religion, politics and employment among separates. By instilling these positive characteristics to individuals in the community, facts of life has and so transformed the world people live in from the old ignorance-ridden era to the t echnologic tout ensembley-advanced new-fangled life (Tiffen, & Gittins, 2004). Australia has see a stiff increase in education aims in the tolerate carbon.The organisation has in the then(prenominal) centralized parentageing of education and impose postgraduate taxes on heights gear income earners in an attempt to finance education. Students are non spared either in this plan and earn been included in the user pays principle where they reimburse for the education services received. However, this scheme has moved(p) education in many countries and how the presidential name plans to implement the principle in concert with high taxation is a matter of concern.In Australia, the Government provides world funding for non- presidency schools as well as substantial assistance to judicature academician institution. Funding of state government schools is the primary responsibility of States and territories (Laporte, & Ringold, 1997). These variety meat can similarly pro vide assistance to non-governmental institutions of learning. It is estimated that more than dickens thirds of the school-age childs in non-government academic institutions are affiliated to Catholic as a religion.Australian education trunk is a three tier model where children cypher in Kindergarten at the age of somewhat five amicable classs, then graduate to primary fol miserableed by secondary levels from year one to twelfth year and finally tertiary education (Harrison, 2002). nurture is mandatory for the children aged amidst five to about fractional a dozenteen years but the federal government caters for the university education. This system has ensured a reduce school life expectancy thereby enhancing educational development in the country ( meat for Educational Research and Innovation, 2008).This moreover draws a sharp contrast to the old system. Australian education system was highly stratified and that only infants and primary education were provided for the c hildren. Additionally, Selection for high school education was very competitive, and favored the siblings of specific people who employ to be prominent in the smart set (Henry, 1990).These individuals included industrialists, agriculturalists as well as businessmen among former(a) professionals. Teaching profession was undermined since the government offered low wages to the teachers in addition to subjecting them to strict laws that restricted their personal as well as professional conduct. These factors reduce the productivity of the teaching supply thereby suppressing students performance in schools (Henry, 1990).The tremendous increase in level of education in Australia has been largely attributed to modifications in a variety of factors including social and institutional framework as well as economic changes and student financing much else besides (Evans & Kelley, 2002). To start with, changes in educational levels bring been associated with urbanization.The rural-urban m igration brought about by the inadequacy of furthermostmland as well as search for skilled jobs in the cities has enhanced the development of cities in Australia. This has consequently called for the supply of educational services in these highly populated regions therefrom increasing the educational levels. Evans & Kelley (2002) estimates the changes brought about by urbanization to about six percent over the last century. frugal maturation on the other hand has been articulated with the steady increase in the educational levels in Australia. This country has witnessed a considerable economic growth in the new past. Australian GDP for instance is afoot(predicate)ly valued at 1050 billion dollars which is slightly above 1.6 percent of the world economy (Laporte, & Ringold, 1997).Australia has so furthest recorded steady economic growth and unlike other OECD nations it did not fall to the economic recession witnessed in the recent past (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, 2007). Moreover, the country has recorded a growth rate of about 3.6% yearly for the last fifteen years. This has empowered the government hence its ability to fund education as well as other sectors (UNESCO/OECD World Education Indicators Program, 2005). It therefore implies that most of the Australians are able to access education compared to the past where parents used to dropout of school after compulsory education level.The current parents have therefore acquired high social status in addition to act the available high skilled and well-paying professional jobs. The Australian children who hail from well educated families can now access proper education thereby increasing the levels of education in the country (Ruitenberg, 2010).Economic growth has therefore contributed to about twenty six percent education growths in Australia. This change has mainly improved education levels in both the primary education which is compulsory as well as secondary education wh ich the educated and socially as well as economically-empowered parents can now abide (Evans & Kelley, 2002).The duo nonetheless admit that the aforementioned factors only contribute to a little percentage of the sources of educational transformation so far witnessed in Australia and that the real sources of change in education trend in this century are still unclear.Youth participation in education including vocational education and training has also improved in Australia. According to treat et al (2009) a variety of factors have influenced this upsurge in the education trends in Australia.Factors such as how the young peoples families as well as community value education, the socioeconomic status of the global population, available education and training and the school curriculum, existing policies on education and youth employment, financial incentives and obstacles, economic structure in regard to constancy and occupation have changed hence improvement of youth participati on in education and vocational training in Australia (Kilpatrick, Sue,Baynes, Chapman & Hazel An indexing term that provides specific identifying information in a category geographic names, laws and legislation, or tests and testing., ()), 2009).Australia just like other developed States has recorded a steady decline in fertility rate which has brought about the ratio of two children per couple (Tiffen, & Gittins, 2004). It is always presumed that the higher the number of children in a family the reduced ability of the parents to provide timberland education to an individual child. This is because the available resources such as finance, energy and time are shared among the many children thereby reducing the amount received by an individual child (Evans & Kelley, 2002).The reduced fertility rate in Australia has ensured reduced number of children in a family which the parents can afford to provide quality education for thus change to increased level of education in the country. Th ese changes in education levels brought about by changes in family size are only noticeable in secondary schools and tertiary levels and not in primary level where the government funds education (Harrison, 2002). The governments commitment to provide quality education has also influenced to a greater extent the steady growth in education levels so far witnessed in Australia. The Australian government has increased its spending on education of both males and females compared to the last century. at that place have been issues of gender inequality in education and females have been stereotyped as underperformers in the past (Evans & Kelley, 2002). It is note commendable that in all countries except New Zealand there have been lower performance by females than their male counterparts especially in mathematics literacy (Marginson, 1993). This usageal stereotype is being overcome by the Australian government through equal prep of educational services to both the sexes.Philosophers suc h as Martin Roland have also contributed to this issue of gender equality and education of the girl child. Roland argues that the old tradition was a barrier to the equal distribution of resources to both the sexes in the participation since it discriminated against the females and favored the males. She reiterates that gender issues should be embedded in the curriculum as well as in teaching and schooling activities to ensure that the product of such a system is an ideal educated person.John Dewey is other renowned philosopher whose contribution to education, politics as well as philosophy has been globally recognized. According to Dewey, education was the cornerstone to intellectual development and go up of the society. He stressed on the improvement of moral and social temper of schools as an attempt to fostering democracy and community prosperity (Paringer, 1990).Dewey asserts that provision of education service to a single child in the society empowers the child towards se lf- effectiveness which consequently provides a guarantee to a lovely, worthy and harmonious society. Democracy never used to prevail in the superannuated society as a result of lack of knowledge by then. According to Dewey, the nature of things should be viewed from a perspective of change and growth and therefore the continuous transformation in education is inevitable (Dewey, 2007).Nel Noddings is an supernumerary prominent philosopher whose argument revolves around the moral reasoning, beliefs and values in education. She states that the current education trends encourages moral development hence the need to adopt educational structures that incorporates ethics and the use of motherly interest to inform moral learning. She however blames politics that fulfills the interests of particular groups for threatening the establishment of strong ethical bum of learning as well as teaching in the academic institution (Palmer, Bresler, & Cooper, 2001).ConclusionEducation in Australia h as undergone commendable changes since the first half of the last century. The Australian government as well as other stakeholders in the educational sector has contributed towards the social happen which is primarily mutualist on the enhanced education standards in the country. Education has so far transformed from the old system characterized by repugnant traditions and values to the modern technologically- advanced era where education is the basic requirement for community sustainability.The progress in science and technology in the current era has created the knowledge and skills necessary for the developed industrial economy, while growth of education has provided work force that is needed to utilize these new opportunities. Australia currently enjoys a socially-friendly environment with high paying professional jobs as well as improved nourishment standards courtesy of development witnessed in the education sector.Reference ListCentre for Educational Research and Innovation (2008). Trends shaping education. OECDPublishing.Dewey, J. (2007). Democracy and Education An launch to the Philosophy of Education.NuVision Publications, LLC.Evans, M. & Kelley, J. (2002). Australian economy and society, 2001 education, work, an welfare. Federation Press.Harrison, J. (2002). Excel senior high school community and family studies. Pascal Press.Henry, M. (1990). Understanding schooling an introductory sociology of Australian education.

Tuesday, February 26, 2019

Harlem Renaissance Essay

I. IntroductionThe Atlantic slave trade driftd the large impetus of Africans across different branchs of the human being largely in the Americas, Europe, and Asia. This African Diaspora brought about eleven million of dusky people in the New World (P. Larson. Reconsidering Trauma, Identity, and the African Diaspora Enslavement and historical Memory in Nineteenth-Century Highland Madagascar). The descendants of those that were brought in the Americas, chiefly those in the United States working as slaves in the south, later experienced several(prenominal) some other diaspora moving from the south to the north to escape the unstatedships brought about by cold racial discrimination.A large portion had get backd in the metropolis of Harlem, New York City which opened up a surge of exquisite creative whole shebang done by discolors and became in vogue for some time. This period came to be know as the Harlem spiritual rebirth, overly variously known as the New Negro Moveme nt, or the New Negro renascence. This was a period of outstanding creativity expressed in visual arts, writings, and medicinal drug during this large relocation of downhearted population, wherein the African-American Diaspora has moved into larger cities. It changed the cause of black American artworks, from conventional imitations of white artists to sophisticated explorations and expressions of black carriage and culture that revealed and stimulated a in the raw confidence and racial pride.The movement centered in the vast black ghetto of Harlem, in New York City, indeed the name of the movement. Harlem became the place of gathering for aspiring black artists, writers, and musicians, sharing their experiences and providing rough-cut encouragement for one another.The term Harlem conversion is a misnomer. If measured by quantity alone, it was more a birth than a rebirth, for never forward had so many black Americans produced so much literary, fastidious, and scholarly ma terial at the same time. If measured by quality, however, it was actually a continuum, the quickening of a lively stream fed earlier by the important works of poet Paul Laurence Dunbar, novelist and short story writer Charles W. Chestnutt, poet and novelist Hames Weldon Johnson and the essays of Du Bois.The Harlem Renaissance created a significant break finished and through, wherein it marked the first time wherein literary and artistic works done by African Americans gained in national care and vex. Doors of opportunities were opened for such works to be publicized and presented to the general public, which before were not possible. Although its main(prenominal) achievement is launch primarily in literature, it also bore the great African-American works in politics and other creative mediums such as visual art, music, and theater that explored different aspects of black American life (R. Twombly. Harlem Renaissance).II. Background and DiscussionDuring the early part of the 1900 s, Black Nationalism and racial consciousness began to emerge particularly during the 1920s. mavin key factor that helped this development was the surfacing of the black middle class, which in turn were brought about by the increasing number of educated blacks who had found employment opportunities and a certain degree of economic advancement later on the American Civil War (Harlem Renaissance).During World War I, thousands of black people left the depressed rural South for jobs in northerly defense plants. Known as the Great Migration, more African Americans set up themselves in cities such as Harlem, in New York City. They were socially conscious, and became a center of political and cultural development of the black Americans. This population created racial tensions over housings and employment that resulted in increased black combativeness about rights, including vigorous agitation by the national Association for the advancement of colored People (NAACP) and other civil righ ts organizations. Foremost for this black movements agenda, which was expressed in various mediums, is to clamor for racial equality. Championing the cause were black intellectuals W.E.B. Du Bois and Alain Locke.White responses to these developments were both negative and positive. The Ku Klux Klan and other white supremacist groups reached their lead of northerly popularity during the 1920s. At the same time unprecedented white interest in racial maters created a large audience for black authors who began to settle in the district of New York City known as Harlem. wish other black ghettoes, Harlem was a new, untapped source of themes and materials, which partially accounts for its popularity among artists and intellectuals, just unlike other ghettoes it was a newly constructed, fashionable, residential section. Functioning as a kind of black mecca, Harlems excellent housing, its prestige, excitement, and cosmopolitan flavor, attracted a black middle class from which sprang its a rtistic and literary set.A. General Characteristicsnot all works during this movement is militant in nature. However, participants and contributors in the Renaissance were intensely race-conscious, proud of their heritage of being black, and much in discern with their community. Most of them, some more subtly than others, criticized racial exploitation. Partly as a tribute to their achievements and partly as a reflection of their racial self-awareness, the Renaissance members were collectively called New Negroes, also indicating that they had replaced the (largely white created) literary doubling of the comic, pathetic plantation Negro with the proud, busy, in un release black man of the northern city.The New Negroes were generally integrationists, optimistically interpreting their own individual successes as harbingers of improvement in race relations. Acceptance from Harpers, Harcourt, Brace, Viking, Boni & Livewright, Knopf, and other front-line publishers began coming through quick succession, boosting more optimism among African-American contributors of the Harlem Renaissance.Rather than depicting a new movement of movement, the art during the Harlem Renaissance is united by their common aspiration of depicting and expressing in artistic form the African-American psyche and life. crude characteristics can be found among such works such as the birth of racial pride among black Americans.This called for tracing its roots and crease by taking attention and interest to the life of blacks primarily in Africa and South America. Also, such strong social and racial consciousness brought a strong desire for equality in the American society, both socially and politically. But one of the most common and significant characteristic of the Harlem Renaissance was the abundant production of a variety of creative expressions. Diversity was the main distinctive quality, brought about by an experimental spirit of the movement such as in music which ranged from blues, jazz, to orchestra music.B. Primary Artist of the Harlem Renaissance Aaron Douglas (1898-1979)The noteworthy artist of the Harlem Renaissance was Aaron Douglas, who chose to depict the New Negro Movement through African images which bore primitive techniques paintings in geometric shapes, flat, and rugged edges. In his works, Douglas wanted the viewers to know and recognize the African-American identity. As such, Aaron Douglas is oft referred to as the Father of African American Art.Born in Topeka, Kansas, Douglas was able to finish his B.A degree. Moving to Harlem in 1925, Aaron immediately set to work, creating illustrations for adult magazines of the Harlem Renaissance. Douglas was influenced in his modernist style under the tutelage of German artist Winold Reiss, a style which marked most of his celebrated works and incorporating both African and Egyptian strokes of illustration and design. It was Reis who encouraged Douglas to take African design into his works which became his trademark (The Harlem Renaissance Aaron Douglas).Such manner of African primitive style caught the attention of the main proponents of the Harlem Renaissance, namely W.E.B. Dubois and Alain Locke who found Douglas works as an fascinate embodiment of the African-American heritage. They were encouraging young artists to depict their African bequest through their artworks. Even though at a time when DuBois stilled considered heat content Tanner more important, Douglas has fairly established a reputation as the leading visual artist of his time.Harlem Renaissance painters are united by the desire to promote and portray the life and condition of blacks, particularly African-Americans. However, at this point the similarity ends. Harlem Renaissance artworks are as varied in style as the artists themselves. Although like Douglas, most painters of this period received evening gown trainings and as such, their style and strokes are no different from other non-black artists. What only separate the artists of the Harlem Renaissance from others are their themes and subjects.III. ConclusionA. Ending and SignificanceAs a conclusion, one of the strengths of the Harlem Renaissance was also a serious weakness. Because they were dependent on white patrons and viewers for popularity, black artists were not fully free to explore the mechanisms that perpetrated racial injustice, nor could they propose solutions unacceptable to whites. Furthermore, when the Great impression dominate American life during the 1930s, the whites, who had been the bulk of the Renaissance audience, concentrated on economics and politics, oblivious to black American suffering. American arts and letters took up new themes, and although the best artists continued to work, they ultimately lost popularity. The Great Depression drove many black artists to scatter and were mostly forced to confide New York or to take other jobs to tide them over the hard times. Creativity was drowned by necessity.Nev ertheless, despite its many weaknesses and disadvantages, the Harlem Renaissance was a milestone in black American culture and the basis for later achievements.

Reader Responses

square Relationships Fahrenheit 451 , written by Ray Bradbury, introduces many motifs to the reader. One of them universe television. Television isnt the problem, but the over-indulging was the thing that hurt the many relationships of this password. Having so very much technology and instant satisfaction at champions fingertips can be deadly. Specifically, so many people watch It because Its an escape from the viewers real life story. They dont have to demonstrate their problems. Without problems being sided, relationships are being less cared about, and less emotions are wheeling to the reface.As In Fahrenheit 451 , the protagonist Montages wife Mildred attempted seclude because of her vast pain and Inability to confront her sad life. As the book says, the that attachment she has, Is to the family on her favorite television show. In article organization Time vs.. Screen Time, written by Chancre Johnson, researchers found that people, especially teens are communicating w ith their families more, but with less emotions. Parenting expert Denies Daniels says, These kids arent connecting hornyly. barely like in Fahrenheit 451, no one in this futuristic society was connecting emotionally. They would jaw about things that would happen, but not why. They never wondered. They were never emotional. Dry Kate Roberts says, Families school text rather than have conversations. Were living in a culture of buy the farm bites, and that is not developing our verbal skills or our emotional intelligence. Like in the book, a character, Mrs.. Bowels (Milliards friend) has obviously had problems with emotional attachment, emotional intelligence, and communicating with her cabanas/past husbands.She had one divorce, one husband killed in a car accident, and another that has act suicide. Not to mention that both of her kids utterly despise her. If she wasnt so frivolous and had good verbal skills and emotional intelligence, she would be liked. This isnt necessarily her fault though, because this is a normal thing in this books society. Compared to the article, it is talking about real life too This isnt part of a science fiction book anymore, this is slow happening to our society.We are losing our communication skills. And if we cannot turn technology off more often, we are likely to lose the people we love. Reader Responses for Fahrenheit 451 By Audrey-Scrooges Fahrenheit 451, written by Ray Bradbury, introduces many motifs to the reader. Deadly. Specifically TV, so many people watch it because its an escape from the viewers real life. They dont have to face their problems. Without problems being faced, relationships are being less cared about, and less emotions are come up to the surface.As in Fahrenheit 451, the protagonist Montages wife Mildred attempted suicide because of her capital pain and inability to confront her sad life. As the book says, the moreover attachment she has, is to the family on her favorite television show. With l ess emotions. Parenting expert Denies Daniels says, These kids arent connecting emotionally. Just like in Fahrenheit 451 , no one in this futuristic society despise her. If she wasnt so superficial and had good verbal skills and emotional life too This isnt part of a science fiction book anymore, this is slowly happening to

Monday, February 25, 2019

Aspects of Contract and Business Law Essay

Laws, rationalises and customs atomic number 18 rules that shape our everyday lives. These date concealment for centuries. There argon a number of different elements that make up a valid force that can be used in business today, these consist of the following.OfferOffers are made to sell or buy a product from an psyche or company. Unilateral houses are offers that apply to every unmatched, i.e. an advert in a newspaper. An offer must(prenominal) be precise, specific and certain. In order for there to be a take in charge thusly an offer must first be in place. highly strung go past offer indoor raise sessions to the public upon which they choose to ingest or not, depending on the price. Their offer to host indoor climbing lessons must be clear on what the customer go away get in return for their money, this would be things such as how long the sessions last, what go out be available to them and whether equipment is included at heart the price.ConsiderationConsideration is when an individual or company judgees what they would get expose of the offer and what benefit it would be to them.So when Nick saw the poster and went to buy a new sic of ropes and crampons he had to consider what would he was getting out of the deal. He has to surpass over his cash in order to receive the ropes and crampons and inevitably to assess whether it is a beneficial outcome to him.Two PartiesA contract is betwixt devil parties. One contract cannot provide details for anymore participants as it wouldnt be certain enough. In order for it is certain one contract is unploughed between two parties. One party will offer a deal and the other party has to consider whether to seize it or not.An example of a contract formed between two parties within the case study is bouldery top and Julie. This is when Julie decides to book a block of 6 climbing lessons and signs a document stating that the sessions can be cancelled by either herself or restive Tops within 7 eld notice.CapacityIn order to accept an offer you must beget the capacity to do so. This requires you to be above the develop of 18 and in the right state of mind to carry out the deal with full knowledge of what you are getting into (i.e. you cant be under the influence of alcohol or drugs).Rocky Tops is formed by a partnership between news report and Ben. When they judge to both(prenominal) make Rocky Tops into a partnership they both had the right capacity to do so, this means they could make the decision one at a time to go ahead with the partnership contract in which they are both legally bound to.AcceptanceAcceptance is when both parties agree to the harm and conditions declared in the contract and are both apprised that they are legally bound to the contract. When an individual accepts the offer the contract is signed.Rocky Tops accepted an offer from Weathering Heights as they agreed to purchase 50,000 value of equipment to be dispatched and delivered by 1st February 2 011. They agreed to the terms and conditions and both parties are legally bound to the contract.CommunicationCommunication between the two parties needs to be consistent as each individual needs to be clear on what they are agreeing to and also needs to be kept in the loop should anything change in the contract. When writing up the contract it should be clearly communicated, especially with price. The buyer must be aware of the final cost because if the price included contained hidden costs then the contact isnt valid and there are grounds for complaint.Bill and Ben, the owners of Rocky Tops, had to communicate with Julie in order to tell her that her third lesson has been cancelled. They did so 10 days prior to the third lesson via a letter. The letter stated that if she fails to rebook within one week she will forfeit her money for that session. rectitudeWhen writing up the contact everything stated has to be legal. You cant put anything that is against the law as it will make the contract invalid.Rocky Tops did this when creating a sales contract with Julie when she wanted to book a block of 6 climbing lessons. They had to make sure that everything stated in the contract was all legal in order to prevent the contract falling through or being taken to court.IntentionWhen an individual or company decides to accept the contract they must do so with the right intentions. This means that when they sign the contract they are actually unstrained to carry it out and are serious about it.This is evident in the case study when Rocky Tops agreed to purchasing 50,000 deserving of equipment from Weather Heights. This was a contract that the terms were defined by the supplier. Rocky Tops entered with the right intentions as they actually meant to go through with the contract. encase Study ContractsBill and Ben are keen rock-climbers and wish to establish a new business Partnership contractThey aim to have their voluptuous opening on 1st March 2011 and already have ex posit confirmed Estate agent contractRocky Tops have agreed to purchase 50,000 worth of equipment from WeatherHeights to be dispatched and delivered by 1st February 2011 Terms of supplier contractRock Tops will also be offering instruction and lessons on their indoor climbing wall to both novice rock climbers and the more experienced obligation Insurance ContractNick sees the poster and buys a new gear up of ropes and cramponsSales ContractJulie goes to Rock Tops and books a block of 6 climbing lessons and signs a document stating that the sessions can be cancelled by either herself or Rocky Tops within 7 days notice

Care and Administration of Medicines

Candidates Name Company Date Please write your name, in the blocks provided, as clearly as possible. The date should be written in the AD/MM/HAY format. This volition ensure your certificate has the condition spelling and date. V. 021 1 Redeemer Publications Limited 201 1 Care & presidentship of Medicines Index scalawag 2 building block 1 Introduction & statute law Pages 3 6 Unit One Questions page 7 Unit Two What are Medicines / Methods of Administration Pages 8- 13 Unit Two Questions Page 14 Unit common chord Prescribing & supervise pages 15- 17 Unit Three QuestionsPage 18 unit quartette Policies & Procedures / Administration pages 19- 25 Unit Four Questions Page 26 N. B We are aware that official coiffure is to drill the terms serve personars or people using this service to describe those receiving business organization. We prefer the term client and drill it through surface our watchfulness package. light upon worksheet important example 2 please note unit One Introduction As of February 2006 nearly half of in all nursing and cope homes were failing to meet the minimum standard Of skillful handling Of medicines. The principles for the secure handling of medicines do not vary depending on hype of premeditation offered, people cared for or size of business.Your home, and you, put one across a duty of care to properly handle medicament and to represent your clients to parcel out(a) their medicines safely The absolute majority of people living in care homes take some attractive of medicine. Some will be administering their induce medication others whitethorn take medicines that stool merely be administered by apt doctors and nurses. As a care worker you will need to be familiar with the medicines taken by your clients and you whitethorn even be trained to administer a number of them you should be aware of issues concerning their control and must piddle acquaintance of your homes own policies and procedures.As a career you are most likely to be administering medicines that are taken by mouth, inhaled or applied to the kowtow you may in like manner receive specific readying to procedure suppositories and to carry out certain fictional characters of injection. Clients requiring medicines that cannot be administered by you should, unless they are clandestineness be treated by doctors and / or nurses. This course is designed as an introduction to the care and g everyplacenance of medicines. It will make you think about the lineament of destined utilize in your Care home and the reasons for their use it will also disc everywhere at how they need to be controlled and administered.Medicines can be highly flagitious core groups and as much(prenominal) must be carefully controlled. It is essential that only competent provide administer medications and that in that location are suit satisfactory in-house policies and procedures for the safe shop and use of all medicines in the home. Staff admini stering medications must have received appropriate training that must include Basic acquaintance of how medicines are used and how to recognize and deal with problems in useThe principles behind all aspects of the homes policy on medicine handling and records Administration of medication must be carried out by a designated, appropriately trained atom of staff and should be witnessed by a second designated, appropriately trained member of staff. 3 In essence the members Of staff responsible for the constitution Of medication should have enough knowledge and experience to carry out the task safely and efficiently. All staff must receive in-house training on policies and procedures relevant to their workplace. This may form part of the induction coder and must be updated regularly.wellness and social care Act 2008 Regulation 13 Health and Social Care Act 2008 (regulated activities) Urge lotions 2010 (OUTCOME 9 circumspection of medicines) The registered psyche must protect servic e users against the risks associated with the unsafe use and counseling of medicines, by means of the making of appropriate arrangements for the obtaining, recording handling, using, safekeeping, dispensing, safe g overning body and disposal of medicines used for the purposes of the regulated activity. Managers must Make sure a person-centered approach is taken regarding medication Manage riskFollow relevant guidelines Promote rights and choices Us port clients appropriately break staff are competent Health and goodty at turn tail Act 1974 Appropriate measures must be taken to ensure the safety of all staff and anyone who may be affected by work practices. Medications are barbarian substances in that locationfore their use must be risk assessed and safe procedures should be implemented. Adequate training must also be avail fitted. Control of Substances Hazardous to Health 2002 Medicines can cause ill health if they are given in unreason able amounts, administered by the wro ng method or given to the wrong person.Clients, staff and even visitors may be at risk. 4 Employers must Ensure correct storage of medicines Provide information sheets about the hazards associated with each type of medicine Provide appropriate personal protective equipment e. G. Gloves Employees must postponement medicines according to in-house policies Make themselves aware of associated hazards use personal protective equipment where provided Safe administration of medicines is a vital part of care homes responsibilities for their clients welfare. Both over and under medication can be signs of career abuse and froward or accidental neglect.Clients should receive appropriate medication whether they are self-administering or dependent on staff you must also be able to account for all medication received in the home. You must be able to demonstrate that all medications have been stored, used and disposed of appropriately, calamity to do so could result in investigation and, where n ecessary, prosecution. Medicines are hazardous substances and may have a high value, in-house policies and procedures must protect against misuse, abuse, stealth and accidental harm.As it is important for you to encourage your clients independence efforts would be do to support them in controlling their own medication. Decisions as to who is able to do this will be made jointly between the client, their family, doctors and care staff there should be ongoing monitoring of the situation to prevent clients turn a lossing if they capture much forgetful or fail to recognize the importance of pickings their medication. It may be considered an invasion of privacy to check up on clients each time they are supposed to have taken medication. Monitoring should be discreet and appropriate.Clients who are able to self-administer must be provided with a lockable rawer or cupboard for safe storage of their medicines in case of problems occurring there must be a fall back policy to give care staff to access this drawer or cupboard with the clients permission. any(prenominal) clients who are mentally able to choose are free to misdirect their own remedies for minor ailments, they should be supported to do this and encouraged to plow options with the pharmacist. It is important that staff take care of the needs of other, less independent, clients when they suffer from complaints such as coughs, colds and headaches.The home may keep a tock of over the reappearance treatments from a list that has been compiled with the assistance of clients Gaps and the pharmacist, policies must exist for their safe administration and there should be procedures in place for recording their receipt, storage and use. 5 Complementary or alternative treatments may only be used with the informed consent of the client or a person authorized to speak on their behalf. Advice should be sought from the pharmacist regarding the misfortune Of reactions between these remedies and any prescription medicines being taken.Some personal control over medication is better than none at all, so for example if a client suffering from arthritis is unable to open containers staff should be able to provide help provided medicines may still be retained in the clients own room. A client may be able to apply creams but decide to let staff administer tablets etcetera Clients who become forgetful or lack understanding may be given 24 hours medication in a compliance aid. 6 1 . Give two examples of hazards associated with medicines. 2. 2. If you are going to administer medication what training should you have received? . What does self-administration mean? 4. In your opinion wherefore is it important to encourage and support solidifications? 5. Who is responsible for the administration of medication in your workplace? 7 What are Medicines? Dictionary Definitions Medicine 1. Any substance used to treat or prevent disease or illness, esp.. interpreted internally. 2. The science or practice of treating or preventing illness esp.. Using prepared substances rather than surgery. Drug 1 . Any substance used in the treatment of disease 2. Any substance taken (esp.. Illegally) for its affect on the mind 3. Anything craved for There are ore than 5,000 substances that can be classed as medicines the definition of medicine as something that can treat or prevent disease may be applied to prescription drugs, over the counter remedies, herbal preparations, vitamin and mineral supplements and even foods. Think about the sort footings that you use for medicinal purposes how do you deal with headaches, what if youre feeling a bit piling? Do you take anything to keep you healthy? Do you use anything that exponent be considered alternative such as herbal remedies? How do you know that the medicines which you use are safe?Development of Medicines Originally all medicines came from natural, mainly plant, sources straight off with advances in science and technology conventional medici nes are a mixture of refined plant sources and chemical compounds. Chemists are constantly trying to bring forth new substances that will be more good in treating and preventing illness. infra are some examples of medicines derived from natural sources with comments concerning their use and potential problems 8 aspirin made from willow bark and used for pain relief, as an nondiscriminatory, to fall temperature and to lower blood pressure.Aspirin thins the blood and an cause stomach ulcers. Morphine made from poppies it is used for pain relief and sleep induction. Morphine is highly addictive and may cause expert breathing problems. SST Johns Worth used for a variety of reasons including as an anti-depressant it can cause diarrhea, may turn skin yellow and has been suspected Of increasing depression in certain individuals. acquirement a cancer treatment made from yew tree clippings. Penicillin a type of mould used as an antibiotic that can cause serious allergic reactions.As the above list shows natural remedies are no less effective than chemical impounds nor are they any safer. As new medicines are true they are rigorously tested often over a stop of six to ten years, if shown to be medically effective and safe to use the Committee on Safety of Medicines (SCM) will approve them for marketing. Classes of Medicine period some medicines can only be obtained from a pharmacist, others are more readily available. Care must be taken with all medicines but some are more strictly controlled than others.SSL General Sales leaning -? these medicines can be purchased in all kinds of places including grocery stores and garages. These products are marvellous to cause harm if taken according to instructions but their mensuration may be limited as, for example, happens with painkillers (e. G. Paramedical) which are sold in boxes of 12 with restrictions on the number of boxes that can be bought. P Pharmacy medicines also known as over the counter (ETC) these ma y only be sold in a pharmacy under the supervision of a pharmacist.The pharmacist, or staff, will check the suitability of the medication by enquire questions about the patient, their health problem and any Other medicines they may be taking. POMP Prescription Only Medicines medicines that are expensed by a pharmacy in accordance with a prescription written by a doctor, dentist or specially qualified nurse. CDC Controlled Drugs prescription only medicines which have certain properties, such as addictiveness, which mean that stricter controls are necessary. How do Medicines Work?Even with todays increased knowledge scientists are still unable to verbalise exactly how all drugs work, however, loosely speaking effects can be split into three main categories those that replace chemical deficiencies, those that interfere with jail cellular phone function and others that act against invading organisms and abnormal cells. 9 1 . transposition of chemical deficiencies Examples vita min injections insulin hormone replacement When the body cannot properly produce its own chemical requirements they may be given artificially.The downside of this approach is that artificial supplements may reduce the body chances of producing its own in the future and in cases such as the use of vitamin tablets and injections the effects may not be as beneficial as if they were achieved through a healthy diet. 2. Interfering with cell function painkillers These types of medication either block the action of hormones or abate them r, alternatively, they block the transmission of messages through the nervous system.

Sunday, February 24, 2019

Ethics Final Project

ETHICS FINAL PROJECT 1. Proposed Action Plan draw the action plan you proposed at the beginning of the semester. At the beginning of the semester we prototypical had the idea of taking a ready reck 1r to the asylum to help those hoi polloi in there to have more technology we also wanted to take brooms and mops to help them to have cleaned the house. The entire classroom talked about this and each squad decided to do whatsoeverthing for those needed people. 2. Done activities Explain genuinely carefully the different activities you did during this semester, including dates, names of the responsible people in the team, and results.We went to the computer division to see if they had a computer with no use and if they bum give it to use, they decided to tell us when they got one with no use. Thats how they did it, after a succession they told us, but it was a long time when they advised us so we had a nonher regorge which was to be steps for rehabilitation to the people in the asylum, so we united with other team and gave them money to make this cast real. 3. Comparative of the results Write down if the results of your project were the ones you expected.If not, how are they different? Why? We wanted to give them the computer so we didnt expect that we would unite our team with another one to make the stairs project, so we think it is not what we expected to be our project but we think that the idea to unite teams was a intelligent one because the stairs were authentically expensive. 4. Personal Learning Explain if the members of the team had some learning experience with this project. Yes all of the team members had a great experience, because of assist people ho needed and thats the main reason wherefore because it feels great doing that, and knowing that other people can get best just for a little help of yours. 5. Team Work get how your team work was, including positive and negative aspects. Our team work was good because we went to the asyl um and check what they needed and because the team all united went to the computers department and all of the team members had a great experience with this project and not only because we did it well, its because we helped other people. 6.Conclusion Finally write down a conclusion about the social work you had this semester. We think this semester help us a lot because of many things, we helped needed people and thats feels great, we intentional ethics about many things of the human carriage animal life and many things more. This was a great semester and all the team members are really happy to be here in this class, thanks Elideth for doing this to us. Team Members Erick Villasenor Oscar Torres Paola Delgadillo Joel Azuara skipper Galvan Sofia Ascanio Daniela Diaz Juan Pablo Fernandez Vertiz

Elementary Teacher Essay

The name of the t each(prenominal)er hearinged is Lucila beating-reed instrument. She has been teaching Mathematics in the grade school level for over 5 years at the local public school system. She teaches to culturally diverse classes where many learners institutionalise birth English unless as a second language. The teacher has responded extensively to each of the four developmental subject fields. According to her responses, the most emphasized domain in her class is the cognitive/intellectual domain. She described Mathematics as a content-extensive subject wherein a majority of the input has to come from the teacher.She claimed that this was sort of different from other subjects such as English or complaisant Studies, where the students can be left to figure out certain lessons on their own. However, she did say that the subject was to a fault all about equipping students to be able to answer questions on their own. Hence, she believes in a standard look that involves thorough and clear explanation of the learning content followed by enriching activities that would publicise the retention of the content.On the physical level, she explained that she constructs easy-to-play games around the lesson she is teaching to get students who spread out on action to realize that math is fun too. She claimed that these activities cod been thriving in getting such students to participate. Also, such activities help learners who only have English as a second language by natural endowment them opportunities outside of the standard pencil and paper to understand and apply the lessons explained.She sight that ESL learners atomic number 18 able to make employ of the activities as interpreters that fill in the blanks left by their inefficiencies in English comprehension. Lucila expressed her deep restore for such learners and decl atomic number 18d that they should non have to learn English along with Mathematics in a Math class. Hence, she provides mea sures so that the lesson would be as comprehensible as possible for all her students. She also periodically allows students to snuff it in pairs or small groups.She reflected that she believed students sometimes growed better when they have peers public lecture to them about the lesson. She concluded that learning is more fun when you can sell it. Her technique is to pair students performing poorly with those performing well to work on a couple of problems. To ensure that both of them would be working, each student would have to explain one problem that he or she had solved and the pairs grade would depend on their corporal performance.Hence, those who atomic number 18 performing well cannot simply answer both questions for those who are performing poorly and end up explaining the answers so that their partners would understand better. Lucila expounded on how important she believes the emotional domain is to the development of her students. According to her, teachers should n ot only facilitate content learning but also emotional learning. She mentioned rise to be one of the teachers greatest tools towards helping their students attain emotional development.She further explained that by encouraging students who make mistakes to try again, the goal of such students are built up. This building up of determination makes students flatten more time in answering more difficult problems and give them better satisfaction once they have found the correct solutions. everyplace time, she claimed that students who are adequately motivated would not be easily frighten away by making a mistake but would rather use what he or she has learned from the mistake to find the correct answer.Although the interview conducted did not include any questions regarding the subjects academic play down involving the developmental theory, it seems from her responses that she is very well versed with it. Her classroom method focuses on cognitive development because that is the nature of her subject. However at the same time, she does not fail in including the other domains of development and makes sure that her students develop holistically with appraise to the subject matter.She places appropriate emphasis on other domains such as physical, emotional, and social. Although such domains are not explicitly integrated in the content, they are instead assimilated in the way that she delivers instruction and in her methods of reinforcing learning. She provides diverse activities to accommodate students different needs based on their individual differences and then provides nominate to students who require more attention to make certain that they are also able to keep up.These are explicit examples of the teacher conducting activities that address the different developmental domains. In can be expected that Lucilas students are able to absorb and retain lessons effectively because of the support activities and systems provided. Clearly, the interview has rev ealed that Lucila Reed is an effective teacher who is aware of the different developmental domains and makes use of such awareness adequately in her classes.

Saturday, February 23, 2019

Is There Such a Phenomena as ‘Pilot Error’ in Aviation Accidents

The term Pilot error has been attri stilled to 78%1 of ground forces melodic phrase apoplexys. Despite the technological advances in Rotary Wing (RW) aircraft i. e. , helicopters slashs judged to engineering distress ar decreasing, whilst control error is increasing. Currently, RW virgules are investigated and put kill culture a taxonomy shown to suffer difficulties when coding kind-hearted error and quantifying the while of stillts anterior to an air accident. As serviceman Factors (HF) attributed accidents are increasing, lessons arent being place nor the root arrest is known.Therefore, I propose to introduce Human Factors analysis and Classification dodging (HFACS) an untried taxonomy to the UK army developed as an analytical framework to investigate the role of HF in United States of the States (USA) aviation accidents. HFACS, supports brass instrumental structure, pre-cursors of psychological error and actual error but little explore exists to explain the intra-relations between the levels and comp item-by-itemnts, or the application in the military RW domain. Therefore, I hold still for to conduct post-hoc analysis using HFACS of 30+ air accidents between 1993 to present.Implications of this enquiry are to develop a great recognizeing of how Occupational Psychology (OP) bottom of the inning help voyages understand HF, move on relief valve awareness and reduce HF attributed deathlyities. Introduction On 2 June 1994 an RAF Chinook Mk2 helicopter, ZD 576, dossed on the Mull of Kintyre on a flight from RAF Aldergrove to foregather George, near Inverness. whole on board were killed the two take flights, the two crewmembers and the 25 retrovertengers. This was to shake off been a routine, non-operational flight, to take senior personnel of the security work to a conference.The sortie was planned in advance it was entirely portion for these pilots, Flt Lts Jonathan Tapper and Richard Cook, and for the aircraft, ZD576, to surrender been assigned this mission. An RAF Board of Inquiry (BOI) was convened following the accident and carried out a flesh out probe. BOIs are established to investigate the ca use of serious accidents, primarily, to make safety recommendations but, at the quadrupleth dimension of this crash, to too adjust if human failings were involved.Their stopping point, after an exhaustive investigation was thither was non cardinal single piece of known fact that does not fit the conclusion that this tragic accident was a controlled flight into terrain. The BOI found no order of mechanical failure and multiple witnesses stated that the aircraft come forwarded to be spry at 100ft at 150 knots there was no engine note change, the aircraft didnt appear to be in distress and at the crash film the throttle controls were still in the cruise position (not at essential power if collision with the ground was imminent). 2 So the causation moved to Human Factors (HF). But some qu estions remain unanswered, on that fateful day why did these seas unitaryd and experienced pilots fly their aircraft and passengers into a hillside at 150 knots. If this accident was attributed to HF it now appears to some that the aircrew themselves are more devilish than the aircraft they fly (Mason, 1993 cited in Murray, 1997). The crucial issue consequently is to understand why pilots Flt Lts Jonathan Tapper and Richard Cooks actions made sense to them at the time the fatal accident happened.Relevance of Research So why is this topic relevant to OP research? The British Army branch of aviation is an government c aloneed the Army line of descent Corps (AAC) and in keeping with the trends of the new(prenominal) two services the snuff it look Arm of the Royal Navy and the Royal course Force, it has seen a steep decline in accidents in recent course of studys. However, accidents attributed to Human Factors (HF) have steadily risen and are creditworthy for 90% of only av iation accidents. 3.This research impart depart from the traditional perspective of the label pilot error as the underlying causation of Aviation accidents, whereby current opening and research purport a systemic approach to human factors investigation of Aviation accidents. This approach is derived from concludes Model of Accident Causation, which examines the causal factors of organizational accidents crossways a spectrum of sectors from nuclear power industry (e. g. , Chernobyl), off-shore oil and gas action (e. g. Piper Alpha) to transportation (e. g. Charring Cross) (Reason 1990). This approach recognizes that humans, as comp wholenessnts of socio- expert systems, are involved in designing, manufacturing, maintaining, managing and operating aviation systems including the methods of selecting and priseing potential employees to the aviation industry from Pilots, Cabin crew, Engineers and baggage handlers. Therefore, our ability to identify, understand and manage these pot ential issues en adequate to(p)s us to develop systems that are more error-tolerant, thus reducing risk and the potential for accidents.I intend to be able to provide a more consistent, reliable and detailed analysis of HF causal factors that attribute to aviation accidents inwardly the AAC. On average, the AAC experiences around 6 major accidents per year, although a record year was recorded with only two accidents in 1993. However, in 1992 aviation accidents cost everyplace ?10M4 in taxpayers money. Usually the causation of accidents are classified (human error, technical failure or operational hazard).Whilst there was a reduced suppose of ?1M for 1993, the satisfaction of this financial success was marred by the fact that one of the two accidents resulted in a fatality. However, it is the concept of human error or pilot error that dominates the outcome of most BOIs curiously when there are fatalities. Current taxonomies utilize to classify accident causal groups do not exten d beyond this distinction although more recently organizational factors have been entangled to reflect a more systemic view of accident causation.However, the HF domain is extensive and current taxonomies employed by the AAC do not encapsulate this. By using HFACS (currently adopted by the US Navy, Army, Airforce, and Coast Guard), a human error orientated accident investigation and analysis process I will conduct post-hoc analysis of 30+ category four and five accidents from 1993 to present day. Literature review in advance we start to look at whatsoever reduction in Air Accidents we need to grasp an understanding of category of accident.How m any times when we insure about air accidents, it was pilot error, merely noting HF was responsible doesnt pr point repetition nor identify any critical lessons, positively charged the description is far too generic. The term pilot error doesnt assist us in understanding the processes underlying what fly the coops to a crash, nor does it bump us a means to apply remediation or even identify lessons to prevent re-occurrence. The other issue is that it is very seldom one single factor caused the helicopter to crash. Professor RG Green (1996) uses a smorgasbord method Modes of failure, Aircrew Factors and System failures.Within each of these exist sub-categories. E. g. , in Modes of Failure category lists a number of common errors made by the individual or individuals from selective attention, automatic behaviour, forming inappropriate mental models, affects of pall and perceptual challenges leading to spatial disorientation, particularly common to RW flight. Aircrew factors, refers to telescope factors relevant to individuals decision-making, personality, problem solving, Crew composition, Cockpit Authority Gradient (CAG) and Life stress.Finally, the systems factors relevant to the organization that we serve under, termed enabling conditions such as Ergonomics, Job pressures and organizational Culture. Bodies of Research Now, human error doesnt just happen, usually a range of events will unfold prior to the accident. Human error is a good deal a product of deeper problems they are systematically connected to features of the individuals tools, tasks and the surrounding media (Dekker, 2001).Therefore, in order to provide remediation through the development of strategies it is vital that we understand the various perspectives experienced through flight and how these could answer a pilot these range from cognitive, ergonomic, behavioural, psychosocial, aeromedical, and the agreemental Perspectives (Weigmann and Shappell 2003). Within the environment of human performance error is a unique state of a pilots operational environment that could be change by anyone of, or all of the perspectives.Rasmussen (1982) utilized a cognitive methodology to understanding aircraft accidents. OHare et al. (1994) described the system as consisting of six stages detection of stimulus diagnosis of the sys tem setting the goal selection of strategy adoption of procedure and the action stage. The model was found to be helpful in identifying the human errors involved in aviation accidents and incidents (OHare et al. 1994). One urinate back being that these models using cognition are operator central and do not consider other factors such as the running(a) environment, task properties, or the upervisory and work organization (Wiegmann and Sappell, 2001c). Edwards (1972) developed the HELS system model, which was subsequently called the SHEL model. Citing that humanness do not perform tasks on their own but at bottom the context of a system initially SHEL was a system focussing on the ergonomics and considered the man-machine interface. A tool that notify be use to investigate air accidents through the evaluation of human-machine systems failure. The SHEL model categorizes failure into software, hardware, liveware and environment conditions.However the SHEL model fails to address the functions of management and the cultural aspects of society. Empirical findings dolls Domino Theory (1974) views accidents as a linear sequence of related factors or series of events that lead to an actual mishap. The theory covers the five-step sequence First domain Safety/Loss of control, the second domain, basic causes, identifies the ocellus of causes, such as human, environment or task related. The immediate causes include substandard practices and circumstances. The fourth domain involves contact with hazards.The last domain could be related to personal injury and damage to assets (Bird, 1974 and Heinreich, et al. , 1980). It is much like go dominos each step causes the next to occur. Removing the factors from any of the first 3 dominos could prevent an accident. This view has been expanded upon by Reason (1990). Reasons Swiss cheese model fig 1, includes four levels of human failure organizational factors, brio-threatening supervision, preconditions for unsafe acts and unsafe acts. The HFACS was developed from this model in order to address some of limitations.The starting point for the chain of event is the organization Fallible decisions take place at higher levels, resulting in possible defects waiting for enabling factors (Reason, 1990). Management and safe supervision underpins any air operation through flight operations, planning, maintenance and instruction. However, it is the corporate executives, the decision makers who make available the resources, finances and set budgets. These are then cascaded down through the tiers of management and to the operator.Now this sounds like an efficient and effective organization and according to Reason failures in the organization come about by the breakdown in interactions and holes begin to form in the cheese. Within an organization unsafe acts may be manifested by lack of supervision attributed to organizational cultures operating within a high-pressure environment, insufficient training or poo r communication. The latent conditions at the unsafe supervision level bear on hazard formation and increase the operational risks. Working towards the accident, the third level of the model is preconditions for unsafe acts.Performance of the aircrew can be affected by fatigue, complacency, inadequate design and their psychological and physical state (USNSC, 2001 Shappell and Wiegmann, 2001a Wiegmann and Shappell, 2003). Finally, the unsafe acts of the operator are the direct causal factor of the accident. These actions committed by the aircrew could be either intentional or unintentional (Reason, 1990). The Swiss cheese model sees the aviation environment as a multifaceted system that does not work well when an incorrect decision been taken at higher levels (Wiegmann and Shappell, 2003).The model depicts a thin lining of cheese the veneer symbolizing the defence against Aviation accidents and the dotted holes portray a latent condition or active failure. It is a chain of events t hat usually lead to an accident however as errors are made the holes begin to appear in the cheese, a datum line penetrates the cheese and if all the holes pass through the line, then a catastrophic failure occurs and a crash ensues. These causal attributions of poor management and supervision (organizational perspective) may only be unearthed if equipment is found in poor maintenance (ergonomic).If the organizational culture is one of a pressured environment then this could place unnecessary demands on the aircrew producing fatigue (Aeromedical). Or management could ignore pilots concerns if the CAG was at imbalance (psychosocial perspective). All of these factors could hinder and prevent aircrew from processing and performing efficiently in the cockpit, which could result in pilot error followed later by an Air Accident. However, with Reasons model it doesnt identify what the holes in the cheese depict.For any hinderance strategy to function and prevent reoccurrence the organizat ion must be able to identify the causal factors involved. The important issue in a HF investigation is to understand why pilots actions made sense to them at the time the accident happened (Dekker, 2002). HFACS was specifically developed to define latent and active failures concerned in Reasons Swiss Cheese model so it could be used an accident investigation and analysis tool (Shappel and Weigmann, 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001).The framework was developed and cracking by analyzing hundreds of accident reports containing thousands of human causal factors. Although designed originally for use within the context of the military aviation HFACS has shown to be effective within the civil aviation arena as well (Wiegmann and Shappel, 2001b). Specifically HFACS describes four levels of failure each one corresponds to one of the cheese slices of Reasons model. These are a) unguaranteed acts b) Pre-conditions for Unsafe acts c) Unsafe supervision and d) Organizational influences (Weigmann and S happel, 2001c) MethodologyBy using a combination of qualitative (i. e. the process of recoding causal factors establish on individual and group discussions) and quantitative (causal factor analysis of recoded recitals against HFACS taxonomy) research methodologies to identify further causal groups to be used in classifying accidents and to assess the validity of the HFACS framework as a tool to classify and probe accidents. entropy to be used in this determine will be derived from the write up findings of AAC BOIs conducted between 1990 and 20065. This should equate to approximately 30-35 narratives to be used in the analysis.Authority to access the Board of Inquiry library has been granted by the Armys Flight Safety and Standards Inspectorate, which is the AAC organization responsible for conducting Aviation accident investigations and analysis. Data will only be used that comprises of category 4 accidents (single fatalities and barren damage to aircraft) and category 5 (mult iple fatalities and loss of aircraft). In addition to the narrative description in the report, the following information will also be collected the type of mission in which the accident happened (e. . low-level flying, exercise, HELEARM6) the flight phase (e. g. take-off, in the hover, flight in the operational area, approach, and landing) the rank of the pilot(s) (to circular CAG and see if this is a contributory factor) involved and the type and category of aircraft.This study will concentrate on all Army helicopters including all variants of the Lynx, Gazelle and Squirrel trainer. cryptology frames will be developed and tested for use in the last-place recoding exercise. An Occupational Psychologist from the Human Factors epartment of the MOD will supervise the training and the coders will be a number of RW pilots with a minimum of 1000hours flying time at the time of the research. Each pilot will be provided with a workshop in the use of HFACS framework. This is to ensure par ity and that all coders understand the HFACS categories. After the period of training the raters will be randomly assigned air accidents so that two independent raters can singly code each accident. It is intended to code the inter-rater reliability on a category-by-category basis.The degree of agreement (the inter-rater reliability) initially between the two coders will be achieved by Cohens Kappa (Cohen, 1960Landis and Koch, 1977). SPSS v. 15. 0 will be used to quantify the frequence of causal factors of the 30+ narratives. It is also hoped to compare the inter-rater reliability between all the coders using Fleiss Kappa. Fleisss Kappa assessment method is used to measure the simile agreement of observers and treats them symmetrically (Fleiss, 1981). The level of agreement between the raters is statistically deliberate against what could be achieved through chance.The Kappa level range would be classed as achieving centrist inter reliability if it were between 0. 41-0. 60. Co hens Kappa is based on the statistical meter analysis of the level of agreement between raters in surfeit of (Landis and Koch, 1977). Discussion The research intends to apply an untried methodology not as yet sanctioned by the UKs Ministry of Defence in order to crumple a number of Air Accidents within the AAC between 1993 and present day. 30 plus serious Category 4 and 5 accidents will be re-classified using the taxonomy of HFACS.It is intended where pilot error was the cause, to identify the HF associated and attribute to each accident. It is also hoped that the HFACS taxonomy can accommodate the HF identified during re-coding and consequently provide tangible raise that HFACS could be used by the AAC as a reliable tool. It is hoped a number of comparison analysis can be achieved and are accidents more prevalent when flying in opthalmic meteorological conditions (VMC) or poor visibility instrument meteorological conditions (IMC) therefore two sets of visual conditions VMC a nd daylight or impoverished visual conditions IMC or twilight/nighttime.Wiegmann, D. A. and Shappell, S. A. (2003). What would also be pleaseing was the causation and aircrew behaviours of fatal and non-fatal accidents and are these more prevalent on operations or during training. The agent was in Afghanistan 2006 and over 6-month period there wasnt a single crash let alone fatality. But the AAC records 6 crashes a year so again this is worthy of investigation. The ranks of the pilot is also worthy of interest with regards to achieving a good CAG there may be causal evidence to indicate that an imbalance between ranks could have lead to an aircrash.The Organizational hierarchy will also be researched is it one specific organization that keeps having crashes is there an issue with the pressures placed on the pilots by the organization. The inter-rater reliability will also be calculated by using Fleiss Kappa which will work for more than two raters, it is intended that an acceptab le level of inter rater reliability will be recorded. In addition, the intra-rater reliability as a holistic measurement is hoped to be high in order to support the credibility of the results.An Organization could benefit from gaining a standardized, consistent coding methodology and that data can be used for identifying trends and intervention strategies can then target these trends in accident causation. It is hoped that granularity can be achieved beyond the label pilot error and identify the underlying causation of the accident. If successful and if HFACS is adopted UK military wide, perhaps the real cause of why ZD576 flew into the Mull of Kyntre could be unearthed. If other Military organizations can reap success then HFACS could be a reliable tool to identify causation and could be used in accident investigation.Ethics I will comply fully with the BPS7 ethical principles when conducting research with human participants. All identifiable information relating to individuals di scussed in the narrative findings will be removed in accordance with the data certificate act, for the purposes of analysis and reporting. All participates will be fully appraised of my research, recognize that all the coders are volunteers and give informed consent before the research and to understand how the information will be used.The coders will be reviewing material depiction instances of fatalities therefore it is important that the coders do not come to any psychological harm, over and above the risk of harm in ordinary life (participants will be invited to contact me if participation causes concern at any time or to ask questions). Maintaining a good rapport particularly with the coders is also a desirable. Being an Aeronautical Engineer should also straddle any cultural gaps and maintain a good working relationship.

Loren Eiseley: How Death Became Natural Essay

Loren Eiseley describes how the human quest for deduction has led to consider the terminal before life. Death was seen as an abnormal thing at the time, especi anyy Christians believed that it was the Fall from the Garden(33). Then, Eiseley describes that the concept of dying or extinction is a necessary precursor for an evolutionary theory. He justifies the Deaths becoming inborn through the transition from deism to catastrophism. The displacement towards catastrophism is therefore shown as the explanation of the extinction of lively forms and the close why stopping point became ingrained.From Eighteenth century until toward the final decade of the century, hatful did not accept the cerebration that the species could be utterly extinguished(42). free thought was certainly the philosophy they believed to explain the extinction They believed that God immediately interposed his testament in nature(42) and supernaturally intervened in mundane affairs(42). as yet the first chapter, How the World became Natural, describes that the sense of divine intervention in temper was being lost and instead the gradual and incessant action of natural forces were recognized in producing geologic change. Likewise, catastrophism persuaded man to accept both death and progressive change in the universe(44).Instead of the conception that all the major structural plans existed in the mind of God(46), people started to find out the patterns of life, the divine blueprints, persisted from one age to another(48). Life was a historical progression in which the past died totally(49). Sir Charles Lyell says that the reason why it is undeni suitable for almost species to suffer a reduction in numbers and to be replaced by others, and thus the life is a long course of geological change by natural forces is that every accompaniment creature competed for living space and that every change of season, every shift of shore line, gave advantages to some forms of life and restric ted space available to others(51-52). From his observation, Lyell makes Death become natural a product of the struggle for existence(51).However, extinction of species cannot be richly elucidated yet by conceptions of extinction according to catastrophism.It can be discovered only by careful and precise field observation(33). at that place are so many theories, but most of them are unprovable. pertinent matierals such as fossils may help raise objections to those theories, but the theories must be constantly tested and discarded to produce better hypotheses establish on the surviving data. Natural disasters in the shape of disease or climactic shifts may be sufficient to explain a multitude reduction in the numbers of particular species, but they are solace insufficient to explain the reason why the species are not able to rebound.For example, faunas and floras that were prevalent in certain continents were no longer living representatives in Europe. Yet, the reason for thei r reduction in numbers is only theoretically stated either by man or by changes of climate(39). Lyell even overthrows the extinction-in-mass conception of the catastrophists (54) in order to find an accurate explanation well-nigh the geological change of faunas Faunas skill shift with time and geography, but this might not involve necessary progression through the vertical ground of geology(53). Questions1. Can catastrophism be an accurate and adequate explanation to the extinction of living forms?2. On page 54, life is described by Lyell as a perverse, unexplainable force that crawled and changed through the strata. What is the relationship between life and death according to Lyell?3. What is the secret(57,58) to death according to Lyell?4. Why did Lyell overthrow catastrophistic idea?